# Negative CFs¶

Negative characterization factors (CFs) can be used for mass balances (e.g. cooling water comes in and goes out), or for flows which are net environmental goods (e.g. some particles can have a short-term cooling effect).

Let's see what is present in ecoinvent. I am using the characterization factors present in version 3.5.

In [1]:
from brightway2 import *
from collections import Counter
len(methods)

Out[1]:
850
In [2]:
counts = Counter()
method_counts = Counter()

total_cfs, neg_cfs = 0, 0

for name in methods:
total_cfs += 1
if line[1] < 0:
counts[line[0]] += 1
method_counts[name] += 1
neg_cfs += 1


How many CFs and negative CFs are there?

In [3]:
total_cfs, neg_cfs

Out[3]:
(220699, 1535)

What fraction of methods had negative CFs?

In [4]:
len(methods), len(method_counts)

Out[4]:
(850, 145)

Which LCIA methods had the most negative CFs?

In [5]:
method_counts.most_common()

Out[5]:
[(('ecosystem damage potential', 'total', 'linear, land use, total'), 61),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 60),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13 no LT', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'),
60),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 60),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13 no LT', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'),
60),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I) V1.13', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 60),
(('ecosystem damage potential', 'total', 'linear, land transformation'), 55),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint', 'resources', 'land use'), 46),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint no LT', 'resources', 'land use'), 46),
(('CML 2001', 'climate change', 'lower limit of net GWP'), 35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'land occupation'), 35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A)', 'total', 'total'), 35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'land occupation w/o LT'),
35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'total w/o LT'),
35),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A) w/o LT', 'total w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 35),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT',
'climate change w/o LT',
'lower limit of net GWP w/o LT'),
28),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint', 'resources', 'land use'), 28),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint no LT', 'resources', 'land use'), 28),
(('CML 2001', 'photochemical oxidation (summer smog)', 'EBIR'), 25),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT', 'photochemical oxidation w/o LT', 'EBIR w/o LT'), 20),
(('CML 2001', 'climate change', 'upper limit of net GWP'), 15),
(('CML 2001', 'photochemical oxidation (summer smog)', 'MOIR'), 15),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E)', 'human health', 'climate change'), 15),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A)', 'human health', 'climate change'), 15),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT',
'climate change w/o LT',
'upper limit of net GWP w/o LT'),
12),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT', 'photochemical oxidation w/o LT', 'MOIR w/o LT'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E)', 'ecosystem quality', 'land occupation'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E)', 'total', 'total'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'land occupation w/o LT'),
12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'total w/o LT'),
12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'climate change w/o LT'),
12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (E,E) w/o LT', 'total w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (H,A) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'climate change w/o LT'),
12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (I,I)', 'ecosystem quality', 'land occupation'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (I,I)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (I,I)', 'human health', 'climate change'), 12),
(('eco-indicator 99, (I,I)', 'total', 'total'), 12),
(('EPS 2000', 'total', 'emissions into water'), 12),
(('EPS 2000', 'total', 'total'), 12),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E)', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 10),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H)', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 10),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I)', 'natural land transformation', 'NLTP'), 10),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'total', 'total'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT', 'ecosystem quality w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'),
7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT', 'total w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'total', 'total'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT', 'ecosystem quality w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'),
7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT', 'total w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'total'), 7),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'total', 'total'), 7),
(('ecological scarcity 2006', 'total', 'total'), 6),
(('ecosystem damage potential', 'total', 'linear, land occupation'), 6),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)',
'ecosystem quality',
'natural land transformation'),
6),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'natural land transformation w/o LT'),
6),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)',
'ecosystem quality',
'natural land transformation'),
6),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'natural land transformation w/o LT'),
6),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)',
'ecosystem quality',
'natural land transformation'),
6),
(('CML 2001', 'photochemical oxidation (summer smog)', 'high NOx POCP'), 5),
(('CML 2001', 'photochemical oxidation (summer smog)', 'MIR'), 5),
(('ecological scarcity 2006', 'total', 'natural resources'), 5),
(('EDIP',
'environmental impact',
'photochemical ozone formation, high NOx POCP'),
5),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint', 'human health', 'photochemical ozone creation'),
5),
(('IPCC 2013', 'climate change', 'GTP 100a'), 5),
(('IPCC 2013', 'climate change', 'GTP 20a'), 5),
(('IPCC 2013', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 5),
(('IPCC 2013 no LT', 'climate change', 'GTP 100a'), 5),
(('IPCC 2013 no LT', 'climate change', 'GTP 20a'), 5),
(('IPCC 2013 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 5),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'human health', 'photochemical oxidant formation'),
5),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'human health', 'photochemical oxidant formation'),
5),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'human health', 'photochemical oxidant formation'),
5),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E)', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 5),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) w/o LT',
'natural land transformation w/o LT',
'NLTP w/o LT'),
5),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H)', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 5),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) w/o LT',
'natural land transformation w/o LT',
'NLTP w/o LT'),
5),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I)', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 5),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT',
'photochemical oxidation w/o LT',
'high NOx POCP w/o LT'),
4),
(('CML 2001 w/o LT', 'photochemical oxidation w/o LT', 'MIR w/o LT'), 4),
(('ecological scarcity 2013', 'global warming', 'total'), 4),
(('ecological scarcity 2013', 'total', 'total'), 4),
(('ecological scarcity 2013 no LT', 'global warming', 'total'), 4),
(('ecological scarcity 2013 no LT', 'total', 'total'), 4),
(('EDIP w/o LT',
'environmental impact w/o LT',
'photochemical ozone formation, high NOx POCP w/o LT'),
4),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint',
'climate change',
'climate change land use and land use change'),
4),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint', 'climate change', 'climate change total'), 4),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint no LT',
'climate change',
'climate change land use and land use change'),
4),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint no LT', 'climate change', 'climate change total'),
4),
(('ILCD 2.0 2018 midpoint no LT',
'human health',
'photochemical ozone creation'),
4),
(('IPCC 2007', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2007', 'climate change', 'GWP 20a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2007', 'climate change', 'GWP 500a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2007 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2007 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 20a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2007 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 500a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2013', 'climate change', 'GWP 20a'), 4),
(('IPCC 2013 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 20a'), 4),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation w/o LT'),
4),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation w/o LT'),
4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13', 'climate change', 'GWP500'), 4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP500'), 4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) w/o LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation w/o LT',
'POFP w/o LT'),
4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13', 'climate change', 'GWP100'), 4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13 no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP100'), 4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) w/o LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation w/o LT',
'POFP w/o LT'),
4),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I) V1.13', 'climate change', 'GWP20'), 4),
(('TRACI', 'environmental impact', 'photochemical oxidation'), 4),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint', 'human health', 'photochemical ozone creation'),
3),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint no LT',
'human health',
'photochemical ozone creation'),
3),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 2),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13 no LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation',
'POFP'),
2),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 2),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.13 no LT',
'photochemical oxidant formation',
'POFP'),
2),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I) V1.13', 'photochemical oxidant formation', 'POFP'), 2),
(('ecological footprint', 'total', 'CO2'), 1),
(('ecological footprint', 'total', 'total'), 1),
(('ecological scarcity 1997', 'total', 'emission into air'), 1),
(('ecological scarcity 1997', 'total', 'total'), 1),
(('ecological scarcity 2006', 'total', 'emission into air'), 1),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 1),
(('ILCD 1.0.8 2016 midpoint no LT', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 1),
(('IPCC 2001', 'climate change', 'GWP 100a'), 1),
(('IPCC 2001', 'climate change', 'GWP 20a'), 1),
(('IPCC 2001', 'climate change', 'GWP 500a'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'climate change, ecosystems'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'human health', 'climate change, human health'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A)', 'human health', 'total'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'climate change, ecosystems w/o LT'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'climate change, human health w/o LT'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (E,A) w/o LT', 'human health w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'climate change, ecosystems'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'human health', 'climate change, human health'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)', 'human health', 'total'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT',
'ecosystem quality w/o LT',
'climate change, ecosystems w/o LT'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT',
'human health w/o LT',
'climate change, human health w/o LT'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A) w/o LT', 'human health w/o LT', 'total w/o LT'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'ecosystem quality', 'climate change, ecosystems'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'human health', 'climate change, human health'),
1),
(('ReCiPe Endpoint (I,A)', 'human health', 'total'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E)', 'climate change', 'GWP500'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (H)', 'climate change', 'GWP100'), 1),
(('ReCiPe Midpoint (I)', 'climate change', 'GWP20'), 1)]

Which elementary flows had negative CFs?

In [6]:
flows = [get_activity(key) for key in counts]
flows

Out[6]:
['Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-, HCFC-140' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-, HCFC-140' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-, HCFC-140' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-, HCFC-140' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-, HCFC-140' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-, HCFC-141b' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-, HCFC-141b' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-, HCFC-141b' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-, HCFC-141b' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoro-, HCFC-141b' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Methane, bromo-, Halon 1001' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Methane, bromo-, Halon 1001' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Methane, bromo-, Halon 1001' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Methane, bromo-, Halon 1001' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Methane, bromo-, Halon 1001' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Methane, bromochlorodifluoro-, Halon 1211' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Methane, bromochlorodifluoro-, Halon 1211' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Methane, bromochlorodifluoro-, Halon 1211' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Methane, bromochlorodifluoro-, Halon 1211' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Methane, bromochlorodifluoro-, Halon 1211' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Methane, bromotrifluoro-, Halon 1301' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Methane, bromotrifluoro-, Halon 1301' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Methane, bromotrifluoro-, Halon 1301' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Methane, bromotrifluoro-, Halon 1301' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Methane, bromotrifluoro-, Halon 1301' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Methane, tetrachloro-, R-10' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Methane, tetrachloro-, R-10' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Methane, tetrachloro-, R-10' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Methane, tetrachloro-, R-10' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Methane, tetrachloro-, R-10' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Methane, trichlorofluoro-, CFC-11' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Methane, trichlorofluoro-, CFC-11' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Methane, trichlorofluoro-, CFC-11' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Methane, trichlorofluoro-, CFC-11' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Methane, trichlorofluoro-, CFC-11' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Benzaldehyde' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Benzaldehyde' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Benzaldehyde' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Benzaldehyde' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Benzaldehyde' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Benzene, ethyl-' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Benzene, ethyl-' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Benzene, ethyl-' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Benzene, ethyl-' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Benzene, ethyl-' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Cumene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Cumene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Cumene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Cumene' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Cumene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Phenol' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Phenol' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Phenol' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Phenol' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Phenol' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Styrene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')),
'Styrene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')),
'Styrene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')),
'Styrene' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Styrene' (kilogram, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, non-irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from forest, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from forest, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from heterogeneous, agricultural' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from industrial area' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from mineral extraction site' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from pasture, man made, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from pasture, man made, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from traffic area, rail/road embankment' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from urban, continuously built' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from urban, discontinuously built' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, non-irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, non-irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from cropland fallow (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from dump site' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from dump site, inert material landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from dump site, residual material landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from dump site, sanitary landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from dump site, slag compartment' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from forest, unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from pasture, man made' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, non-irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, non-irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from permanent crop, non-irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from seabed, drilling and mining' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from seabed, unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from shrub land, sclerophyllous' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from traffic area, rail network' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from traffic area, road network' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Carbon dioxide, to soil or biomass stock' (kilogram, None, ('soil',)),
'Occupation, cropland fallow (non-use)' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, field margin/hedgerow' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, forest, extensive' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, permanent crop, irrigated, extensive' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, shrub land, sclerophyllous' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Carbon dioxide, to soil or biomass stock' (kilogram, None, ('soil', 'agricultural')),
'Carbon dioxide, to soil or biomass stock' (kilogram, None, ('soil', 'forestry')),
'Carbon dioxide, to soil or biomass stock' (kilogram, None, ('soil', 'industrial')),
'Occupation, river, natural (non-use)' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, wetland, coastal (non-use)' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Occupation, wetland, inland (non-use)' (square meter-year, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, flooded crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, greenhouse' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, non-irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, non-irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to annual crop, non-irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to cropland fallow (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to dump site' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to dump site, inert material landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to dump site, residual material landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to dump site, sanitary landfill' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to dump site, slag compartment' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to field margin/hedgerow' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to forest, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to forest, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to forest, secondary (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to forest, unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to grassland, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to grassland, natural, for livestock grazing' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to heterogeneous, agricultural' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to industrial area' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to inland waterbody, unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to lake, artificial' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to lake, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to mineral extraction site' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to pasture, man made' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to pasture, man made, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to pasture, man made, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, non-irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, non-irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to permanent crop, non-irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to river, artificial' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to river, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to seabed, drilling and mining' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to seabed, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to seabed, unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to shrub land, sclerophyllous' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to traffic area, rail network' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to traffic area, rail/road embankment' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to traffic area, road network' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to unspecified' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to unspecified, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to urban, continuously built' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to urban, discontinuously built' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to urban, green area' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to urban/industrial fallow (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to wetland, coastal (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to wetland, inland (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean')),
'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water')),
'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water',)),
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean')),
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water')),
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water',)),
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean')),
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water')),
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water',)),
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean')),
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water')),
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water',)),
'Transformation, from forest, primary (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from forest, secondary (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from grassland, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from unspecified, natural (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, flooded crop' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, greenhouse' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, irrigated' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, irrigated, extensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from annual crop, irrigated, intensive' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from arable land, unspecified use' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from field margin/hedgerow' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from urban, green area' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, from urban/industrial fallow (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Nitric oxide' (kilogram, None, ('air',)),
'Transformation, to arable land, unspecified use' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to bare area (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to forest, primary (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to seabed, infrastructure' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land')),
'Transformation, to snow and ice (non-use)' (square meter, None, ('natural resource', 'land'))]

Look specifically at water flows:

In [7]:
for flow in flows:
if flow['categories'][0] == 'water':
print(flow)

'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean'))
'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water'))
'Nitrate' (kilogram, None, ('water',))
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean'))
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water'))
'Nitrite' (kilogram, None, ('water',))
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean'))
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water'))
'Nitrogen' (kilogram, None, ('water',))
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'ocean'))
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water', 'surface water'))
'Nitrogen, organic bound' (kilogram, None, ('water',))


Looks like the water depletion methods don't correctly account for water releases. Let's double-check:

In [8]:
for line in Method(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E)', 'water depletion', 'WDP')).load():
print(get_activity(line[0]), line[1])

'Water, in air' (cubic meter, None, ('natural resource', 'in air')) 1.0
'Water, lake' (cubic meter, None, ('natural resource', 'in water')) 1.0
'Water, river' (cubic meter, None, ('natural resource', 'in water')) 1.0
'Water, unspecified natural origin' (cubic meter, None, ('natural resource', 'in water')) 0.001
'Water, well, in ground' (cubic meter, None, ('natural resource', 'in water')) 1.0

In [9]:
for line in Method(('ReCiPe Midpoint (E) V1.13', 'water depletion', 'WDP')).load():
print(get_activity(line[0]), line[1])

'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')) 1.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')) 1.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')) 1.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air',)) 1.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')) 1.0

In [10]:
for line in Method(('ecological scarcity 2013', 'water resources', 'total')).load():
print(get_activity(line[0]), line[1])

'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'low population density, long-term')) 610.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'lower stratosphere + upper troposphere')) 610.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'non-urban air or from high stacks')) 610.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air',)) 610.0
'Water' (cubic meter, None, ('air', 'urban air close to ground')) 610.0