(Sethna, "Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity", ex. 2.5)

Import packages

In [ ]:

```
%pylab inline
from scipy import *
```

One can efficiently generate and analyze random walks on the computer.

Write a routine RandomWalk(N,d) to generate an N-step random walk in d dimensions, with each step uniformly distributed in [-1/2,1/2] in each dimension. (Generate the steps first as an $N \times d$ array, and then do a cumulative sum.)

In [ ]:

```
def RandomWalk(N, d):
"""
Use random.uniform(min, max, shape) to generate an array of steps of shape (N,d),
and then use cumsum(..., axis=0) (which adds them up along the 'N' axis).
"""
steps = ...
walks = ...
return walks
```

Plot some one dimensional random walks versus step number, for N=10, 100, and 10000 steps. Does multiplying the number of steps by 100 roughly increase the distance by 10?

In [ ]:

```
for i in range(10):
plot(RandomWalk(...,1));
figure()
for i in range(10):
plot(RandomWalk(...));
figure()
for i in range(10):
plot(RandomWalk(...));
```

Plot some two-dimensional random walks with N=10000 steps, setting axes(aspect='equal') beforehand to make the x and y scales the same. (Your routine gives $x,y$ pairs, and you want $x$ and $y$ as arrays to plot, so you need to transpose.)

In [ ]:

```
axes(aspect='equal')
for i in range(10):
x, y = RandomWalk(...).transpose()
plot(x,y);
```

Each random walk is different and unpredictable, but the *ensemble* of random walks has elegent, predictable properties.

Write a routine Endpoints(W, N, d) that just returns the endpoints of W random walks of N steps each in d dimensions. (No need to use cumsum; just sum. If you generate a 3D array of size (W, N, d), sum over axis=1 to sum over the N steps of each walk.

In [ ]:

```
def Endpoints(W, N, d):
steps = ...
return sum(..., axis=...)
```

Plot the endpoints of 10000 random walks of length 10. Then plot the endpoints of 10000 random walks of length 1. Discuss how this illustrates an *emergent symmetry*

In [ ]:

```
axes(aspect='equal')
x, y = Endpoints(...).transpose()
plot(x,y,'.')
x, y = Endpoints(...).transpose()
plot(...)
```

The most useful property of random walks is described by the *central limit theorem*. The endpoints of an ensemble of N-step random walks with RMS step-size $a$ has a Gaussian or normal distribution as $N\to\infty$,
$$\rho(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi} \sigma} \exp(-x^2/(2 \sigma^2)),$$
with $\sigma = \sqrt{N} a$.

Calculate the RMS step-size $a$ for one-dimensional steps uniformly distributed in (-1/2, 1/2). Compare the normalized histogram of 10000 endpoints with a normalized Gaussian of width $\sigma$ predicted above, for $N = 1$, 2, and 5. How quickly does the Gaussian distribution become a good approximation for random walks?

In [ ]:

```
N = 1
hist(Endpoints(...), bins = 50, normed=True);
sigma = sqrt(...)
x = arange(-3.*sigma, 3.*sigma, 0.1*sigma)
gauss = (1./...)*exp(...)
plot(x,gauss,'r');
```

In [ ]:

```
N = 2
...
```

In [ ]:

```
N = 5
...
```