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from __future__ import division, print_function
%matplotlib inline

Note: This example has been significantly expanded and enhanced. The new, recommended version is located here. We retain this version intact as it was the exact example used in the scikit-image paper.

Panorama stitching

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import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from skimage import io, transform
from skimage.color import rgb2gray
from skdemo import imshow_all
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ic = io.ImageCollection('../images/pano/DFM_*')

The ImageCollection class provides an easy way of loading and representing multiple images. Images are not read from disk until accessed.

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imshow_all(ic[0], ic[1])

Credit: Photographs taken in Petra, Jordan by Fran├žois Malan
License: CC-BY

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image0 = rgb2gray(ic[0][:, 500:500+1987, :])
image1 = rgb2gray(ic[1][:, 500:500+1987, :])

image0 = transform.rescale(image0, 0.25)
image1 = transform.rescale(image1, 0.25)
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imshow_all(image0, image1)

For this demo, we estimate a projective transformation that relates the two images. Since the outer parts of these photographs do not comform well to such a model, we select only the central parts. To further speed up the demonstration, images are downscaled to 25% of their original size.

1. Feature detection and matching

"Oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF" features are detected in both images:

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from skimage.feature import ORB, match_descriptors

orb = ORB(n_keypoints=1000, fast_threshold=0.05)

orb.detect_and_extract(image0)
keypoints1 = orb.keypoints
descriptors1 = orb.descriptors

orb.detect_and_extract(image1)
keypoints2 = orb.keypoints
descriptors2 = orb.descriptors

matches12 = match_descriptors(descriptors1, descriptors2, cross_check=True)
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from skimage.feature import plot_matches

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(10, 10))
plot_matches(ax, image0, image1, keypoints1, keypoints2, matches12)
ax.axis('off');

Each feature yields a binary descriptor; those are used to find the putative matches shown. Many false matches are observed.

2. Transform estimation

To filter matches, we apply RANdom SAMple Consensus (RANSAC), a common method of rejecting outliers. This iterative process estimates transformation models based on randomly chosen subsets of matches, finally selecting the model which corresponds best with the majority of matches.

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from skimage.transform import ProjectiveTransform
from skimage.measure import ransac
from skimage.feature import plot_matches

# Select keypoints from the source (image to be registered)
# and target (reference image)
src = keypoints2[matches12[:, 1]][:, ::-1]
dst = keypoints1[matches12[:, 0]][:, ::-1]

model_robust, inliers = ransac((src, dst), ProjectiveTransform,
                               min_samples=4, residual_threshold=2)
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fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15, 15))
plot_matches(ax, image0, image1, keypoints1, keypoints2, matches12[inliers])
ax.axis('off');

Note how most of the false matches have now been rejected.

3. Warping

Next, we want to produce the panorama itself. The first step is to find the shape of the output image, by taking considering the extents of all warped images.

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from skimage.transform import SimilarityTransform

r, c = image1.shape[:2]

# Note that transformations take coordinates in (x, y) format,
# not (row, column), in order to be consistent with most literature
corners = np.array([[0, 0],
                    [0, r],
                    [c, 0],
                    [c, r]])

# Warp the image corners to their new positions
warped_corners = model_robust(corners)

# Find the extents of both the reference image and the warped
# target image
all_corners = np.vstack((warped_corners, corners))

corner_min = np.min(all_corners, axis=0)
corner_max = np.max(all_corners, axis=0)

output_shape = (corner_max - corner_min)
output_shape = np.ceil(output_shape[::-1])

Warp the images according to the estimated transformation model. Values outside the input images are set to -1 to distinguish the "background".

A shift is added to make sure that both images are visible in their entirety. Note that warp takes the inverse mapping as an input.

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from skimage.color import gray2rgb
from skimage.exposure import rescale_intensity
from skimage.transform import warp

offset = SimilarityTransform(translation=-corner_min)

image0_ = warp(image0, offset.inverse,
               output_shape=output_shape, cval=-1)

image1_ = warp(image1, (model_robust + offset).inverse,
               output_shape=output_shape, cval=-1)

An alpha channel is now added to the warped images before they are merged together:

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def add_alpha(image, background=-1):
    """Add an alpha layer to the image.
    
    The alpha layer is set to 1 for foreground and 0 for background.
    """
    return np.dstack((gray2rgb(image), (image != background)))

image0_alpha = add_alpha(image0_)
image1_alpha = add_alpha(image1_)

merged = (image0_alpha + image1_alpha)
alpha = merged[..., 3]

# The summed alpha layers give us an indication of how many
# images were combined to make up each pixel.  Divide by the
# number of images to get an average.
merged /= np.maximum(alpha, 1)[..., np.newaxis]
merged = merged[..., :3]
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imshow_all(image0_alpha, image1_alpha, merged)

Note that, while the columns are well aligned, the color intensity is not well matched between images.

4. Blending

To blend images smoothly we make use of the open source package Enblend, which in turn employs multi-resolution splines and Laplacian pyramids [1, 2].

[1] P. Burt and E. Adelson. "A Multiresolution Spline With Application to Image Mosaics". ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1983. Pg. 217-236. [2] P. Burt and E. Adelson. "The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code". IEEE Transactions on Communications, April 1983.

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plt.imsave('/tmp/frame0.tif', image0_alpha)
plt.imsave('/tmp/frame1.tif', image1_alpha)
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%%bash

enblend /tmp/frame*.tif -o /tmp/pano.tif
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pano = io.imread('/tmp/pano.tif')

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 10))
plt.imshow(pano)
plt.axis('off');

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%reload_ext load_style
%load_style ../themes/tutorial.css