# Least-Squares Regression Workbook¶

## CH EN 2450 - Numerical Methods¶

Prof. Tony Saad (www.tsaad.net)
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Utah

# Example 1¶

The height of a person vs femur length is given by the following data:

femur length (cm) height (cm)
40 163
41 165
43 167
43 164
44 168
44 169
45 170
45 167
48 170
51 175

Plot this data and then perform regression to a line and a quadratic using the standard derivation as well as the normal equations. Also use numpy's polyfit and compare to you solutions.

Let's first get the boiler plate out of the way and import matplotlib and numpy

In :
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'svg'
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np


Now place the input data in numpy arrays. We can enter these manually or import from a text file.

In :
xi = np.array([40,41,43,43,44,44,45,45,48,51])
yi = np.array([163,165,167,164,168,169,170,167,170,175])


Now plot the data

In :
plt.plot(xi,yi,'ro')
plt.xlabel('Femur length (cm)')
plt.ylabel('Person\' height (cm)')
plt.title('Height vs femur length')
plt.grid()


## Regression to a straight line¶

Here, we regress the data to a straight line $a_0 + a_1 x$. Recall that, for regression to a straight line, we must solve the following system of equations: \begin{equation} \label{eq:regression-line} \left[ \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} N& \sum{x_i}\\ \sum{x_i} &\sum{x_i^2} \end{array} \right] \left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} a_0\\ a_1 \end{array} \right) = \left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} \sum{y_i}\\ \sum {x_i y_i} \end{array} \right) \end{equation}

first build the coefficient matrix as a list of lists [ [a,b], [c,d]]. We will use numpy.sum to compute the various summations in the system \eqref{eq:regression-line}.

In :
N = len(xi)
A = np.array([[N, np.sum(xi)],
[np.sum(xi), np.sum(xi**2)]])


next, construct the right-hand-side using a 1D numpy array

In :
b = np.array([np.sum(yi), np.sum(xi*yi)])


now find the solution of $[\mathbf{A}]\mathbf{a} = \mathbf{b}$, where $a = (a_0, a_1)$ are the coefficients of the regressed line. Use numpy's built-in linear solver.

In :
sol = np.linalg.solve(A,b)
# print the solution. Note that in this case, the solution should contain two values, a0 and a1, respectively.
print(sol)

[123.20779221   1.004329  ]


The variable sol contains the solution of the system of equations. It is a list of two entries corresponding to the coefficients $a_0$ and $a_1$ of the regressed line.

We can now plot the line, $a_0 + a_1 x$ that we just fitted into the data

In :
# first get the coefficients a0 and a1 from the variable sol
a0 = sol
a1 = sol

# construct a function f(x) for the regressed line
y_line = lambda x: a0 + a1*x

# now plot the regressed line as a function of the input data xi
plt.plot(xi, y_line(xi), label='least-squares fit')
# plot the original data
plt.plot(xi, yi,'ro', label='original data')
plt.xlabel('Femur length (cm)')
plt.ylabel('Person\' height (cm)')
plt.title('Height vs femur length')
plt.legend()
plt.grid()


## Standard Error¶

The standard error of the model quantifies the spread of the data around the regression curve. It is given by \begin{equation} S_{y/x} = \sqrt{\frac{S_r}{n-2}} = \sqrt{\frac{\sum{(y_i - f_i)^2}}{n-2}} \end{equation}

In :
ybar = np.average(yi)
print(ybar)
fi = y_line(xi)
stdev = np.sqrt(np.sum((yi - ybar)**2)/(N-1))
print(stdev - ybar)
Sr = np.sum((yi-fi)**2)
Syx = np.sqrt(Sr/(N-2))
print(Syx)

167.8
-164.3103327124527
1.4317065166379408


### R2 Value¶

The $R^2$ value can be computed as: \begin{equation}R^2 = 1 - \frac{\sum{(y_i - f_i)^2}}{\sum{(y_i - \bar{y})^2}}\end{equation} where \begin{equation} \bar{y} = \frac{1}{N}\sum{y_i} \end{equation}

In :
ybar = np.average(yi)
fi = y_line(xi)
rsq = 1 - np.sum( (yi - fi)**2 )/np.sum( (yi - ybar)**2 )
print(rsq)

0.8503807627895221


To enable quick calculation of the R2 value for other functions, let's declare a function that computes the R2 value for an arbitrary model fit.

In :
def rsquared(xi,yi,ymodel):
'''
xi: vector of length n representing the known x values.
yi: vector of length n representing the known y values that correspond to xi.
ymodel: a python function (of x only) that can be evaluated at xi and represents a model fit of
the data (e.g. a regressed curve).
'''
ybar = np.average(yi)
fi = ymodel(xi)
result = 1 - np.sum( (yi - fi)**2 )/np.sum( (yi - ybar)**2 )
return result

In :
rsq = rsquared(xi,yi,y_line)
print(rsq)

0.8503807627895221


## Regression to a quadratic¶

Here, we regress the data to a quadratic polynomial $a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2$. Recall that, for regression to a quadratic, we must solve the following system of equations: \begin{equation} \label{eq:regression-line} \left[ \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} N& \sum{x_i} & \sum{x_i^2}\\ \sum{x_i} &\sum{x_i^2} & \sum{x_i^3} \\ \sum{x_i^2} & \sum{x_i^3} & \sum{x_i^4} \end{array} \right] \left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} a_0\\ a_1 \\ a_2 \end{array} \right) = \left( \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} \sum{y_i}\\ \sum {x_i y_i}\\ \sum {x_i^2 y_i} \end{array} \right) \end{equation}

In :
A = np.array([[len(xi),    np.sum(xi)  , np.sum(xi**2)  ],
[np.sum(xi), np.sum(xi**2), np.sum(xi**3)],
[np.sum(xi**2), np.sum(xi**3), np.sum(xi**4)] ])
b = np.array([np.sum(yi), np.sum(xi*yi), np.sum(xi*xi*yi)])
print(A,b)

[[      10      444    19806]
[     444    19806   887796]
[   19806   887796 39994422]] [   1678   74596 3331896]

In :
sol = np.linalg.solve(A,b)
print(sol)

[1.28368173e+02 7.76379556e-01 2.50458155e-03]

In :
a0 = sol
a1 = sol
a2 = sol
y_quad = lambda x: a0 + a1*x + a2*x**2
# now plot the regressed line as a function of the input data xi
plt.plot(xi, y_quad(xi), label='least-squares fit (quadratic)')
# plot the original data
plt.plot(xi, yi,'ko', label='original data')
plt.xlabel('Femur length (cm)')
plt.ylabel('Person\' height (cm)')
plt.title('Height vs femur length')
plt.legend()
plt.grid()


Let's now compute the R2 value for the quadratic fit

In :
rsq = rsquared(xi,yi,y_quad)
print(rsq)

0.8504537705463819


This value of 85% is not much different than the one we got with a straight line fit. The data is very likely to be distributed linearly.

## Using the normal equations¶

Fit a straight line to the data using the normal equations

In :
A = np.array([np.ones(len(xi)),xi]).T
print(A)
ATA =  A.T @ A
sol = np.linalg.solve(ATA,A.T@yi)
print(sol)

[[ 1. 40.]
[ 1. 41.]
[ 1. 43.]
[ 1. 43.]
[ 1. 44.]
[ 1. 44.]
[ 1. 45.]
[ 1. 45.]
[ 1. 48.]
[ 1. 51.]]
[123.20779221   1.004329  ]


For a quadratic fit using the normal equations

In :
A = np.array([np.ones(len(xi)),xi,xi**2]).T
ATA =  A.T @ A
sol = np.linalg.solve(ATA,A.T@yi)
print(sol)

[1.28368173e+02 7.76379556e-01 2.50458155e-03]


## Using Numpy's Polyfit¶

It is possible to repeat the previous analysis using numpy's polyfit function. Let's try it out and compare to our results

We first compare a straight line fit

In :
coefs = np.polyfit(xi,yi,1)
print(coefs)

[  1.004329   123.20779221]


Indeed, the coefficients are the same as the ones we obtained from our straight-line fit. Polyfit returns the coefs sorted in reverse order.

To use the data returned by polyfit, we can construct a polynomial using poly1d and simply pass the coefficients returned by polyfit

In :
p = np.poly1d(coefs)


no, simply call p on any value, say p(43)

In :
print(p(43))

166.39393939393938


We can also plot the fit

In :
# now plot the regressed line as a function of the input data xi
plt.plot(xi, p(xi), label='least-squares fit (quadratic)')
# plot the original data
plt.plot(xi, yi,'ko', label='original data')
plt.xlabel('Femur length (cm)')
plt.ylabel('Person\' height (cm)')
plt.title('Height vs femur length')
plt.legend()
plt.grid()


We can do the same for the quadratic fit - simply change the degree of the polynomial in polyfit

In :
coefs = np.polyfit(xi,yi,2)
pquad = np.poly1d(coefs)
print(pquad(43))

166.38346568926897


## Using numpy's Least Squares¶

In :
np.linalg.lstsq(A,yi,rcond=None)

Out:
(array([1.28368173e+02, 7.76379556e-01, 2.50458155e-03]),
array([16.39026675]),
3,
array([6.32567302e+03, 9.94238708e+00, 1.72620823e-02]))
In :
from IPython.core.display import HTML
def css_styling():
styles = open("../../styles/custom.css", "r").read()
return HTML(styles)
css_styling()

Out:
CSS style adapted from https://github.com/barbagroup/CFDPython. Copyright (c) Barba group
In [ ]: