로지스틱 회귀

럭키백의 확률

데이터 준비하기

In [2]:
import pandas as pd

fish = pd.read_csv('https://bit.ly/fish_csv_data')
fish.head()
Out[2]:
Species Weight Length Diagonal Height Width
0 Bream 242.0 25.4 30.0 11.5200 4.0200
1 Bream 290.0 26.3 31.2 12.4800 4.3056
2 Bream 340.0 26.5 31.1 12.3778 4.6961
3 Bream 363.0 29.0 33.5 12.7300 4.4555
4 Bream 430.0 29.0 34.0 12.4440 5.1340
In [3]:
print(pd.unique(fish['Species']))
['Bream' 'Roach' 'Whitefish' 'Parkki' 'Perch' 'Pike' 'Smelt']
In [4]:
fish_input = fish[['Weight','Length','Diagonal','Height','Width']].to_numpy()
In [5]:
print(fish_input[:5])
[[242.      25.4     30.      11.52     4.02  ]
 [290.      26.3     31.2     12.48     4.3056]
 [340.      26.5     31.1     12.3778   4.6961]
 [363.      29.      33.5     12.73     4.4555]
 [430.      29.      34.      12.444    5.134 ]]
In [6]:
fish_target = fish['Species'].to_numpy()
In [7]:
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

train_input, test_input, train_target, test_target = train_test_split(
    fish_input, fish_target, random_state=42)
In [8]:
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

ss = StandardScaler()
ss.fit(train_input)
train_scaled = ss.transform(train_input)
test_scaled = ss.transform(test_input)

k-최근접 이웃 분류기의 확률 예측

In [9]:
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier

kn = KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=3)
kn.fit(train_scaled, train_target)

print(kn.score(train_scaled, train_target))
print(kn.score(test_scaled, test_target))
0.8907563025210085
0.85
In [10]:
print(kn.classes_)
['Bream' 'Parkki' 'Perch' 'Pike' 'Roach' 'Smelt' 'Whitefish']
In [11]:
print(kn.predict(test_scaled[:5]))
['Perch' 'Smelt' 'Pike' 'Perch' 'Perch']
In [12]:
import numpy as np

proba = kn.predict_proba(test_scaled[:5])
print(np.round(proba, decimals=4))
[[0.     0.     1.     0.     0.     0.     0.    ]
 [0.     0.     0.     0.     0.     1.     0.    ]
 [0.     0.     0.     1.     0.     0.     0.    ]
 [0.     0.     0.6667 0.     0.3333 0.     0.    ]
 [0.     0.     0.6667 0.     0.3333 0.     0.    ]]
In [13]:
distances, indexes = kn.kneighbors(test_scaled[3:4])
print(train_target[indexes])
[['Roach' 'Perch' 'Perch']]

로지스틱 회귀

In [14]:
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

z = np.arange(-5, 5, 0.1)
phi = 1 / (1 + np.exp(-z))

plt.plot(z, phi)
plt.xlabel('z')
plt.ylabel('phi')
plt.show()

로지스틱 회귀로 이진 분류 수행하기

In [15]:
char_arr = np.array(['A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E'])
print(char_arr[[True, False, True, False, False]])
['A' 'C']
In [16]:
bream_smelt_indexes = (train_target == 'Bream') | (train_target == 'Smelt')
train_bream_smelt = train_scaled[bream_smelt_indexes]
target_bream_smelt = train_target[bream_smelt_indexes]
In [17]:
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

lr = LogisticRegression()
lr.fit(train_bream_smelt, target_bream_smelt)
Out[17]:
LogisticRegression(C=1.0, class_weight=None, dual=False, fit_intercept=True,
                   intercept_scaling=1, l1_ratio=None, max_iter=100,
                   multi_class='auto', n_jobs=None, penalty='l2',
                   random_state=None, solver='lbfgs', tol=0.0001, verbose=0,
                   warm_start=False)
In [18]:
print(lr.predict(train_bream_smelt[:5]))
['Bream' 'Smelt' 'Bream' 'Bream' 'Bream']
In [19]:
print(lr.predict_proba(train_bream_smelt[:5]))
[[0.99759855 0.00240145]
 [0.02735183 0.97264817]
 [0.99486072 0.00513928]
 [0.98584202 0.01415798]
 [0.99767269 0.00232731]]
In [20]:
print(lr.classes_)
['Bream' 'Smelt']
In [21]:
print(lr.coef_, lr.intercept_)
[[-0.4037798  -0.57620209 -0.66280298 -1.01290277 -0.73168947]] [-2.16155132]
In [22]:
decisions = lr.decision_function(train_bream_smelt[:5])
print(decisions)
[-6.02927744  3.57123907 -5.26568906 -4.24321775 -6.0607117 ]
In [23]:
from scipy.special import expit

print(expit(decisions))
[0.00240145 0.97264817 0.00513928 0.01415798 0.00232731]

로지스틱 회귀로 다중 분류 수행하기

In [24]:
lr = LogisticRegression(C=20, max_iter=1000)
lr.fit(train_scaled, train_target)

print(lr.score(train_scaled, train_target))
print(lr.score(test_scaled, test_target))
0.9327731092436975
0.925
In [25]:
print(lr.predict(test_scaled[:5]))
['Perch' 'Smelt' 'Pike' 'Roach' 'Perch']
In [26]:
proba = lr.predict_proba(test_scaled[:5])
print(np.round(proba, decimals=3))
[[0.    0.014 0.841 0.    0.136 0.007 0.003]
 [0.    0.003 0.044 0.    0.007 0.946 0.   ]
 [0.    0.    0.034 0.935 0.015 0.016 0.   ]
 [0.011 0.034 0.306 0.007 0.567 0.    0.076]
 [0.    0.    0.904 0.002 0.089 0.002 0.001]]
In [27]:
print(lr.classes_)
['Bream' 'Parkki' 'Perch' 'Pike' 'Roach' 'Smelt' 'Whitefish']
In [28]:
print(lr.coef_.shape, lr.intercept_.shape)
(7, 5) (7,)
In [29]:
decision = lr.decision_function(test_scaled[:5])
print(np.round(decision, decimals=2))
[[ -6.5    1.03   5.16  -2.73   3.34   0.33  -0.63]
 [-10.86   1.93   4.77  -2.4    2.98   7.84  -4.26]
 [ -4.34  -6.23   3.17   6.49   2.36   2.42  -3.87]
 [ -0.68   0.45   2.65  -1.19   3.26  -5.75   1.26]
 [ -6.4   -1.99   5.82  -0.11   3.5   -0.11  -0.71]]
In [30]:
from scipy.special import softmax

proba = softmax(decision, axis=1)
print(np.round(proba, decimals=3))
[[0.    0.014 0.841 0.    0.136 0.007 0.003]
 [0.    0.003 0.044 0.    0.007 0.946 0.   ]
 [0.    0.    0.034 0.935 0.015 0.016 0.   ]
 [0.011 0.034 0.306 0.007 0.567 0.    0.076]
 [0.    0.    0.904 0.002 0.089 0.002 0.001]]