Chapter 5 – Support Vector Machines

This notebook contains all the sample code and solutions to the exercises in chapter 5.

Setup

First, let's import a few common modules, ensure MatplotLib plots figures inline and prepare a function to save the figures. We also check that Python 3.5 or later is installed (although Python 2.x may work, it is deprecated so we strongly recommend you use Python 3 instead), as well as Scikit-Learn ≥0.20.

In [1]:
# Python ≥3.5 is required
import sys
assert sys.version_info >= (3, 5)

# Scikit-Learn ≥0.20 is required
import sklearn
assert sklearn.__version__ >= "0.20"

# Common imports
import numpy as np
import os

# to make this notebook's output stable across runs
np.random.seed(42)

# To plot pretty figures
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib as mpl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
mpl.rc('axes', labelsize=14)
mpl.rc('xtick', labelsize=12)
mpl.rc('ytick', labelsize=12)

# Where to save the figures
PROJECT_ROOT_DIR = "."
CHAPTER_ID = "svm"
IMAGES_PATH = os.path.join(PROJECT_ROOT_DIR, "images", CHAPTER_ID)
os.makedirs(IMAGES_PATH, exist_ok=True)

def save_fig(fig_id, tight_layout=True, fig_extension="png", resolution=300):
    path = os.path.join(IMAGES_PATH, fig_id + "." + fig_extension)
    print("Saving figure", fig_id)
    if tight_layout:
        plt.tight_layout()
    plt.savefig(path, format=fig_extension, dpi=resolution)

Large margin classification

The next few code cells generate the first figures in chapter 5. The first actual code sample comes after:

In [2]:
from sklearn.svm import SVC
from sklearn import datasets

iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = iris["target"]

setosa_or_versicolor = (y == 0) | (y == 1)
X = X[setosa_or_versicolor]
y = y[setosa_or_versicolor]

# SVM Classifier model
svm_clf = SVC(kernel="linear", C=float("inf"))
svm_clf.fit(X, y)
Out[2]:
SVC(C=inf, kernel='linear')
In [3]:
# Bad models
x0 = np.linspace(0, 5.5, 200)
pred_1 = 5*x0 - 20
pred_2 = x0 - 1.8
pred_3 = 0.1 * x0 + 0.5

def plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf, xmin, xmax):
    w = svm_clf.coef_[0]
    b = svm_clf.intercept_[0]

    # At the decision boundary, w0*x0 + w1*x1 + b = 0
    # => x1 = -w0/w1 * x0 - b/w1
    x0 = np.linspace(xmin, xmax, 200)
    decision_boundary = -w[0]/w[1] * x0 - b/w[1]

    margin = 1/w[1]
    gutter_up = decision_boundary + margin
    gutter_down = decision_boundary - margin

    svs = svm_clf.support_vectors_
    plt.scatter(svs[:, 0], svs[:, 1], s=180, facecolors='#FFAAAA')
    plt.plot(x0, decision_boundary, "k-", linewidth=2)
    plt.plot(x0, gutter_up, "k--", linewidth=2)
    plt.plot(x0, gutter_down, "k--", linewidth=2)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(10,2.7), sharey=True)

plt.sca(axes[0])
plt.plot(x0, pred_1, "g--", linewidth=2)
plt.plot(x0, pred_2, "m-", linewidth=2)
plt.plot(x0, pred_3, "r-", linewidth=2)
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "bs", label="Iris versicolor")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "yo", label="Iris setosa")
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 5.5, 0, 2])

plt.sca(axes[1])
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf, 0, 5.5)
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "bs")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "yo")
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 5.5, 0, 2])

save_fig("large_margin_classification_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure large_margin_classification_plot

Sensitivity to feature scales

In [4]:
Xs = np.array([[1, 50], [5, 20], [3, 80], [5, 60]]).astype(np.float64)
ys = np.array([0, 0, 1, 1])
svm_clf = SVC(kernel="linear", C=100)
svm_clf.fit(Xs, ys)

plt.figure(figsize=(9,2.7))
plt.subplot(121)
plt.plot(Xs[:, 0][ys==1], Xs[:, 1][ys==1], "bo")
plt.plot(Xs[:, 0][ys==0], Xs[:, 1][ys==0], "ms")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf, 0, 6)
plt.xlabel("$x_0$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel("$x_1$    ", fontsize=20, rotation=0)
plt.title("Unscaled", fontsize=16)
plt.axis([0, 6, 0, 90])

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
scaler = StandardScaler()
X_scaled = scaler.fit_transform(Xs)
svm_clf.fit(X_scaled, ys)

plt.subplot(122)
plt.plot(X_scaled[:, 0][ys==1], X_scaled[:, 1][ys==1], "bo")
plt.plot(X_scaled[:, 0][ys==0], X_scaled[:, 1][ys==0], "ms")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf, -2, 2)
plt.xlabel("$x_0$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel("$x'_1$  ", fontsize=20, rotation=0)
plt.title("Scaled", fontsize=16)
plt.axis([-2, 2, -2, 2])

save_fig("sensitivity_to_feature_scales_plot")
Saving figure sensitivity_to_feature_scales_plot

Sensitivity to outliers

In [5]:
X_outliers = np.array([[3.4, 1.3], [3.2, 0.8]])
y_outliers = np.array([0, 0])
Xo1 = np.concatenate([X, X_outliers[:1]], axis=0)
yo1 = np.concatenate([y, y_outliers[:1]], axis=0)
Xo2 = np.concatenate([X, X_outliers[1:]], axis=0)
yo2 = np.concatenate([y, y_outliers[1:]], axis=0)

svm_clf2 = SVC(kernel="linear", C=10**9)
svm_clf2.fit(Xo2, yo2)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(10,2.7), sharey=True)

plt.sca(axes[0])
plt.plot(Xo1[:, 0][yo1==1], Xo1[:, 1][yo1==1], "bs")
plt.plot(Xo1[:, 0][yo1==0], Xo1[:, 1][yo1==0], "yo")
plt.text(0.3, 1.0, "Impossible!", fontsize=24, color="red")
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.annotate("Outlier",
             xy=(X_outliers[0][0], X_outliers[0][1]),
             xytext=(2.5, 1.7),
             ha="center",
             arrowprops=dict(facecolor='black', shrink=0.1),
             fontsize=16,
            )
plt.axis([0, 5.5, 0, 2])

plt.sca(axes[1])
plt.plot(Xo2[:, 0][yo2==1], Xo2[:, 1][yo2==1], "bs")
plt.plot(Xo2[:, 0][yo2==0], Xo2[:, 1][yo2==0], "yo")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf2, 0, 5.5)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.annotate("Outlier",
             xy=(X_outliers[1][0], X_outliers[1][1]),
             xytext=(3.2, 0.08),
             ha="center",
             arrowprops=dict(facecolor='black', shrink=0.1),
             fontsize=16,
            )
plt.axis([0, 5.5, 0, 2])

save_fig("sensitivity_to_outliers_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure sensitivity_to_outliers_plot

Large margin vs margin violations

This is the first code example in chapter 5:

In [6]:
import numpy as np
from sklearn import datasets
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.svm import LinearSVC

iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.float64)  # Iris virginica

svm_clf = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
        ("linear_svc", LinearSVC(C=1, loss="hinge", random_state=42)),
    ])

svm_clf.fit(X, y)
Out[6]:
Pipeline(steps=[('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('linear_svc', LinearSVC(C=1, loss='hinge', random_state=42))])
In [7]:
svm_clf.predict([[5.5, 1.7]])
Out[7]:
array([1.])

Now let's generate the graph comparing different regularization settings:

In [8]:
scaler = StandardScaler()
svm_clf1 = LinearSVC(C=1, loss="hinge", random_state=42)
svm_clf2 = LinearSVC(C=100, loss="hinge", random_state=42)

scaled_svm_clf1 = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", scaler),
        ("linear_svc", svm_clf1),
    ])
scaled_svm_clf2 = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", scaler),
        ("linear_svc", svm_clf2),
    ])

scaled_svm_clf1.fit(X, y)
scaled_svm_clf2.fit(X, y)
/Users/ageron/miniconda3/envs/tf2/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/svm/_base.py:977: ConvergenceWarning: Liblinear failed to converge, increase the number of iterations.
  "the number of iterations.", ConvergenceWarning)
Out[8]:
Pipeline(steps=[('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('linear_svc',
                 LinearSVC(C=100, loss='hinge', random_state=42))])
In [9]:
# Convert to unscaled parameters
b1 = svm_clf1.decision_function([-scaler.mean_ / scaler.scale_])
b2 = svm_clf2.decision_function([-scaler.mean_ / scaler.scale_])
w1 = svm_clf1.coef_[0] / scaler.scale_
w2 = svm_clf2.coef_[0] / scaler.scale_
svm_clf1.intercept_ = np.array([b1])
svm_clf2.intercept_ = np.array([b2])
svm_clf1.coef_ = np.array([w1])
svm_clf2.coef_ = np.array([w2])

# Find support vectors (LinearSVC does not do this automatically)
t = y * 2 - 1
support_vectors_idx1 = (t * (X.dot(w1) + b1) < 1).ravel()
support_vectors_idx2 = (t * (X.dot(w2) + b2) < 1).ravel()
svm_clf1.support_vectors_ = X[support_vectors_idx1]
svm_clf2.support_vectors_ = X[support_vectors_idx2]
In [10]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(10,2.7), sharey=True)

plt.sca(axes[0])
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "g^", label="Iris virginica")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "bs", label="Iris versicolor")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf1, 4, 5.9)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=14)
plt.title("$C = {}$".format(svm_clf1.C), fontsize=16)
plt.axis([4, 5.9, 0.8, 2.8])

plt.sca(axes[1])
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "g^")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "bs")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf2, 4, 5.99)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.title("$C = {}$".format(svm_clf2.C), fontsize=16)
plt.axis([4, 5.9, 0.8, 2.8])

save_fig("regularization_plot")
Saving figure regularization_plot

Non-linear classification

In [11]:
X1D = np.linspace(-4, 4, 9).reshape(-1, 1)
X2D = np.c_[X1D, X1D**2]
y = np.array([0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0])

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 3))

plt.subplot(121)
plt.grid(True, which='both')
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.plot(X1D[:, 0][y==0], np.zeros(4), "bs")
plt.plot(X1D[:, 0][y==1], np.zeros(5), "g^")
plt.gca().get_yaxis().set_ticks([])
plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=20)
plt.axis([-4.5, 4.5, -0.2, 0.2])

plt.subplot(122)
plt.grid(True, which='both')
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
plt.plot(X2D[:, 0][y==0], X2D[:, 1][y==0], "bs")
plt.plot(X2D[:, 0][y==1], X2D[:, 1][y==1], "g^")
plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel(r"$x_2$  ", fontsize=20, rotation=0)
plt.gca().get_yaxis().set_ticks([0, 4, 8, 12, 16])
plt.plot([-4.5, 4.5], [6.5, 6.5], "r--", linewidth=3)
plt.axis([-4.5, 4.5, -1, 17])

plt.subplots_adjust(right=1)

save_fig("higher_dimensions_plot", tight_layout=False)
plt.show()
Saving figure higher_dimensions_plot
In [12]:
from sklearn.datasets import make_moons
X, y = make_moons(n_samples=100, noise=0.15, random_state=42)

def plot_dataset(X, y, axes):
    plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "bs")
    plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "g^")
    plt.axis(axes)
    plt.grid(True, which='both')
    plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=20)
    plt.ylabel(r"$x_2$", fontsize=20, rotation=0)

plot_dataset(X, y, [-1.5, 2.5, -1, 1.5])
plt.show()
In [13]:
from sklearn.datasets import make_moons
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures

polynomial_svm_clf = Pipeline([
        ("poly_features", PolynomialFeatures(degree=3)),
        ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
        ("svm_clf", LinearSVC(C=10, loss="hinge", random_state=42))
    ])

polynomial_svm_clf.fit(X, y)
/Users/ageron/miniconda3/envs/tf2/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/svm/_base.py:977: ConvergenceWarning: Liblinear failed to converge, increase the number of iterations.
  "the number of iterations.", ConvergenceWarning)
Out[13]:
Pipeline(steps=[('poly_features', PolynomialFeatures(degree=3)),
                ('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('svm_clf', LinearSVC(C=10, loss='hinge', random_state=42))])
In [14]:
def plot_predictions(clf, axes):
    x0s = np.linspace(axes[0], axes[1], 100)
    x1s = np.linspace(axes[2], axes[3], 100)
    x0, x1 = np.meshgrid(x0s, x1s)
    X = np.c_[x0.ravel(), x1.ravel()]
    y_pred = clf.predict(X).reshape(x0.shape)
    y_decision = clf.decision_function(X).reshape(x0.shape)
    plt.contourf(x0, x1, y_pred, cmap=plt.cm.brg, alpha=0.2)
    plt.contourf(x0, x1, y_decision, cmap=plt.cm.brg, alpha=0.1)

plot_predictions(polynomial_svm_clf, [-1.5, 2.5, -1, 1.5])
plot_dataset(X, y, [-1.5, 2.5, -1, 1.5])

save_fig("moons_polynomial_svc_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure moons_polynomial_svc_plot
In [15]:
from sklearn.svm import SVC

poly_kernel_svm_clf = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
        ("svm_clf", SVC(kernel="poly", degree=3, coef0=1, C=5))
    ])
poly_kernel_svm_clf.fit(X, y)
Out[15]:
Pipeline(steps=[('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('svm_clf', SVC(C=5, coef0=1, kernel='poly'))])
In [16]:
poly100_kernel_svm_clf = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
        ("svm_clf", SVC(kernel="poly", degree=10, coef0=100, C=5))
    ])
poly100_kernel_svm_clf.fit(X, y)
Out[16]:
Pipeline(steps=[('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('svm_clf', SVC(C=5, coef0=100, degree=10, kernel='poly'))])
In [17]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(10.5, 4), sharey=True)

plt.sca(axes[0])
plot_predictions(poly_kernel_svm_clf, [-1.5, 2.45, -1, 1.5])
plot_dataset(X, y, [-1.5, 2.4, -1, 1.5])
plt.title(r"$d=3, r=1, C=5$", fontsize=18)

plt.sca(axes[1])
plot_predictions(poly100_kernel_svm_clf, [-1.5, 2.45, -1, 1.5])
plot_dataset(X, y, [-1.5, 2.4, -1, 1.5])
plt.title(r"$d=10, r=100, C=5$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("")

save_fig("moons_kernelized_polynomial_svc_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure moons_kernelized_polynomial_svc_plot
In [18]:
def gaussian_rbf(x, landmark, gamma):
    return np.exp(-gamma * np.linalg.norm(x - landmark, axis=1)**2)

gamma = 0.3

x1s = np.linspace(-4.5, 4.5, 200).reshape(-1, 1)
x2s = gaussian_rbf(x1s, -2, gamma)
x3s = gaussian_rbf(x1s, 1, gamma)

XK = np.c_[gaussian_rbf(X1D, -2, gamma), gaussian_rbf(X1D, 1, gamma)]
yk = np.array([0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0])

plt.figure(figsize=(10.5, 4))

plt.subplot(121)
plt.grid(True, which='both')
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.scatter(x=[-2, 1], y=[0, 0], s=150, alpha=0.5, c="red")
plt.plot(X1D[:, 0][yk==0], np.zeros(4), "bs")
plt.plot(X1D[:, 0][yk==1], np.zeros(5), "g^")
plt.plot(x1s, x2s, "g--")
plt.plot(x1s, x3s, "b:")
plt.gca().get_yaxis().set_ticks([0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1])
plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel(r"Similarity", fontsize=14)
plt.annotate(r'$\mathbf{x}$',
             xy=(X1D[3, 0], 0),
             xytext=(-0.5, 0.20),
             ha="center",
             arrowprops=dict(facecolor='black', shrink=0.1),
             fontsize=18,
            )
plt.text(-2, 0.9, "$x_2$", ha="center", fontsize=20)
plt.text(1, 0.9, "$x_3$", ha="center", fontsize=20)
plt.axis([-4.5, 4.5, -0.1, 1.1])

plt.subplot(122)
plt.grid(True, which='both')
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
plt.plot(XK[:, 0][yk==0], XK[:, 1][yk==0], "bs")
plt.plot(XK[:, 0][yk==1], XK[:, 1][yk==1], "g^")
plt.xlabel(r"$x_2$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel(r"$x_3$  ", fontsize=20, rotation=0)
plt.annotate(r'$\phi\left(\mathbf{x}\right)$',
             xy=(XK[3, 0], XK[3, 1]),
             xytext=(0.65, 0.50),
             ha="center",
             arrowprops=dict(facecolor='black', shrink=0.1),
             fontsize=18,
            )
plt.plot([-0.1, 1.1], [0.57, -0.1], "r--", linewidth=3)
plt.axis([-0.1, 1.1, -0.1, 1.1])
    
plt.subplots_adjust(right=1)

save_fig("kernel_method_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure kernel_method_plot
In [19]:
x1_example = X1D[3, 0]
for landmark in (-2, 1):
    k = gaussian_rbf(np.array([[x1_example]]), np.array([[landmark]]), gamma)
    print("Phi({}, {}) = {}".format(x1_example, landmark, k))
Phi(-1.0, -2) = [0.74081822]
Phi(-1.0, 1) = [0.30119421]
In [20]:
rbf_kernel_svm_clf = Pipeline([
        ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
        ("svm_clf", SVC(kernel="rbf", gamma=5, C=0.001))
    ])
rbf_kernel_svm_clf.fit(X, y)
Out[20]:
Pipeline(steps=[('scaler', StandardScaler()),
                ('svm_clf', SVC(C=0.001, gamma=5))])
In [21]:
from sklearn.svm import SVC

gamma1, gamma2 = 0.1, 5
C1, C2 = 0.001, 1000
hyperparams = (gamma1, C1), (gamma1, C2), (gamma2, C1), (gamma2, C2)

svm_clfs = []
for gamma, C in hyperparams:
    rbf_kernel_svm_clf = Pipeline([
            ("scaler", StandardScaler()),
            ("svm_clf", SVC(kernel="rbf", gamma=gamma, C=C))
        ])
    rbf_kernel_svm_clf.fit(X, y)
    svm_clfs.append(rbf_kernel_svm_clf)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(nrows=2, ncols=2, figsize=(10.5, 7), sharex=True, sharey=True)

for i, svm_clf in enumerate(svm_clfs):
    plt.sca(axes[i // 2, i % 2])
    plot_predictions(svm_clf, [-1.5, 2.45, -1, 1.5])
    plot_dataset(X, y, [-1.5, 2.45, -1, 1.5])
    gamma, C = hyperparams[i]
    plt.title(r"$\gamma = {}, C = {}$".format(gamma, C), fontsize=16)
    if i in (0, 1):
        plt.xlabel("")
    if i in (1, 3):
        plt.ylabel("")

save_fig("moons_rbf_svc_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure moons_rbf_svc_plot

Regression

In [22]:
np.random.seed(42)
m = 50
X = 2 * np.random.rand(m, 1)
y = (4 + 3 * X + np.random.randn(m, 1)).ravel()
In [23]:
from sklearn.svm import LinearSVR

svm_reg = LinearSVR(epsilon=1.5, random_state=42)
svm_reg.fit(X, y)
Out[23]:
LinearSVR(epsilon=1.5, random_state=42)
In [24]:
svm_reg1 = LinearSVR(epsilon=1.5, random_state=42)
svm_reg2 = LinearSVR(epsilon=0.5, random_state=42)
svm_reg1.fit(X, y)
svm_reg2.fit(X, y)

def find_support_vectors(svm_reg, X, y):
    y_pred = svm_reg.predict(X)
    off_margin = (np.abs(y - y_pred) >= svm_reg.epsilon)
    return np.argwhere(off_margin)

svm_reg1.support_ = find_support_vectors(svm_reg1, X, y)
svm_reg2.support_ = find_support_vectors(svm_reg2, X, y)

eps_x1 = 1
eps_y_pred = svm_reg1.predict([[eps_x1]])
In [25]:
def plot_svm_regression(svm_reg, X, y, axes):
    x1s = np.linspace(axes[0], axes[1], 100).reshape(100, 1)
    y_pred = svm_reg.predict(x1s)
    plt.plot(x1s, y_pred, "k-", linewidth=2, label=r"$\hat{y}$")
    plt.plot(x1s, y_pred + svm_reg.epsilon, "k--")
    plt.plot(x1s, y_pred - svm_reg.epsilon, "k--")
    plt.scatter(X[svm_reg.support_], y[svm_reg.support_], s=180, facecolors='#FFAAAA')
    plt.plot(X, y, "bo")
    plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=18)
    plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=18)
    plt.axis(axes)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(9, 4), sharey=True)
plt.sca(axes[0])
plot_svm_regression(svm_reg1, X, y, [0, 2, 3, 11])
plt.title(r"$\epsilon = {}$".format(svm_reg1.epsilon), fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel(r"$y$", fontsize=18, rotation=0)
#plt.plot([eps_x1, eps_x1], [eps_y_pred, eps_y_pred - svm_reg1.epsilon], "k-", linewidth=2)
plt.annotate(
        '', xy=(eps_x1, eps_y_pred), xycoords='data',
        xytext=(eps_x1, eps_y_pred - svm_reg1.epsilon),
        textcoords='data', arrowprops={'arrowstyle': '<->', 'linewidth': 1.5}
    )
plt.text(0.91, 5.6, r"$\epsilon$", fontsize=20)
plt.sca(axes[1])
plot_svm_regression(svm_reg2, X, y, [0, 2, 3, 11])
plt.title(r"$\epsilon = {}$".format(svm_reg2.epsilon), fontsize=18)
save_fig("svm_regression_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure svm_regression_plot
In [26]:
np.random.seed(42)
m = 100
X = 2 * np.random.rand(m, 1) - 1
y = (0.2 + 0.1 * X + 0.5 * X**2 + np.random.randn(m, 1)/10).ravel()

Note: to be future-proof, we set gamma="scale", as this will be the default value in Scikit-Learn 0.22.

In [27]:
from sklearn.svm import SVR

svm_poly_reg = SVR(kernel="poly", degree=2, C=100, epsilon=0.1, gamma="scale")
svm_poly_reg.fit(X, y)
Out[27]:
SVR(C=100, degree=2, kernel='poly')
In [28]:
from sklearn.svm import SVR

svm_poly_reg1 = SVR(kernel="poly", degree=2, C=100, epsilon=0.1, gamma="scale")
svm_poly_reg2 = SVR(kernel="poly", degree=2, C=0.01, epsilon=0.1, gamma="scale")
svm_poly_reg1.fit(X, y)
svm_poly_reg2.fit(X, y)
Out[28]:
SVR(C=0.01, degree=2, kernel='poly')
In [29]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(9, 4), sharey=True)
plt.sca(axes[0])
plot_svm_regression(svm_poly_reg1, X, y, [-1, 1, 0, 1])
plt.title(r"$degree={}, C={}, \epsilon = {}$".format(svm_poly_reg1.degree, svm_poly_reg1.C, svm_poly_reg1.epsilon), fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel(r"$y$", fontsize=18, rotation=0)
plt.sca(axes[1])
plot_svm_regression(svm_poly_reg2, X, y, [-1, 1, 0, 1])
plt.title(r"$degree={}, C={}, \epsilon = {}$".format(svm_poly_reg2.degree, svm_poly_reg2.C, svm_poly_reg2.epsilon), fontsize=18)
save_fig("svm_with_polynomial_kernel_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure svm_with_polynomial_kernel_plot

Under the hood

In [30]:
iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.float64)  # Iris virginica
In [31]:
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D

def plot_3D_decision_function(ax, w, b, x1_lim=[4, 6], x2_lim=[0.8, 2.8]):
    x1_in_bounds = (X[:, 0] > x1_lim[0]) & (X[:, 0] < x1_lim[1])
    X_crop = X[x1_in_bounds]
    y_crop = y[x1_in_bounds]
    x1s = np.linspace(x1_lim[0], x1_lim[1], 20)
    x2s = np.linspace(x2_lim[0], x2_lim[1], 20)
    x1, x2 = np.meshgrid(x1s, x2s)
    xs = np.c_[x1.ravel(), x2.ravel()]
    df = (xs.dot(w) + b).reshape(x1.shape)
    m = 1 / np.linalg.norm(w)
    boundary_x2s = -x1s*(w[0]/w[1])-b/w[1]
    margin_x2s_1 = -x1s*(w[0]/w[1])-(b-1)/w[1]
    margin_x2s_2 = -x1s*(w[0]/w[1])-(b+1)/w[1]
    ax.plot_surface(x1s, x2, np.zeros_like(x1),
                    color="b", alpha=0.2, cstride=100, rstride=100)
    ax.plot(x1s, boundary_x2s, 0, "k-", linewidth=2, label=r"$h=0$")
    ax.plot(x1s, margin_x2s_1, 0, "k--", linewidth=2, label=r"$h=\pm 1$")
    ax.plot(x1s, margin_x2s_2, 0, "k--", linewidth=2)
    ax.plot(X_crop[:, 0][y_crop==1], X_crop[:, 1][y_crop==1], 0, "g^")
    ax.plot_wireframe(x1, x2, df, alpha=0.3, color="k")
    ax.plot(X_crop[:, 0][y_crop==0], X_crop[:, 1][y_crop==0], 0, "bs")
    ax.axis(x1_lim + x2_lim)
    ax.text(4.5, 2.5, 3.8, "Decision function $h$", fontsize=16)
    ax.set_xlabel(r"Petal length", fontsize=16, labelpad=10)
    ax.set_ylabel(r"Petal width", fontsize=16, labelpad=10)
    ax.set_zlabel(r"$h = \mathbf{w}^T \mathbf{x} + b$", fontsize=18, labelpad=5)
    ax.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=16)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(11, 6))
ax1 = fig.add_subplot(111, projection='3d')
plot_3D_decision_function(ax1, w=svm_clf2.coef_[0], b=svm_clf2.intercept_[0])

save_fig("iris_3D_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure iris_3D_plot

Small weight vector results in a large margin

In [32]:
def plot_2D_decision_function(w, b, ylabel=True, x1_lim=[-3, 3]):
    x1 = np.linspace(x1_lim[0], x1_lim[1], 200)
    y = w * x1 + b
    m = 1 / w

    plt.plot(x1, y)
    plt.plot(x1_lim, [1, 1], "k:")
    plt.plot(x1_lim, [-1, -1], "k:")
    plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
    plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
    plt.plot([m, m], [0, 1], "k--")
    plt.plot([-m, -m], [0, -1], "k--")
    plt.plot([-m, m], [0, 0], "k-o", linewidth=3)
    plt.axis(x1_lim + [-2, 2])
    plt.xlabel(r"$x_1$", fontsize=16)
    if ylabel:
        plt.ylabel(r"$w_1 x_1$  ", rotation=0, fontsize=16)
    plt.title(r"$w_1 = {}$".format(w), fontsize=16)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(9, 3.2), sharey=True)
plt.sca(axes[0])
plot_2D_decision_function(1, 0)
plt.sca(axes[1])
plot_2D_decision_function(0.5, 0, ylabel=False)
save_fig("small_w_large_margin_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure small_w_large_margin_plot
In [33]:
from sklearn.svm import SVC
from sklearn import datasets

iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)] # petal length, petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.float64) # Iris virginica

svm_clf = SVC(kernel="linear", C=1)
svm_clf.fit(X, y)
svm_clf.predict([[5.3, 1.3]])
Out[33]:
array([1.])

Hinge loss

In [34]:
t = np.linspace(-2, 4, 200)
h = np.where(1 - t < 0, 0, 1 - t)  # max(0, 1-t)

plt.figure(figsize=(5,2.8))
plt.plot(t, h, "b-", linewidth=2, label="$max(0, 1 - t)$")
plt.grid(True, which='both')
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
plt.yticks(np.arange(-1, 2.5, 1))
plt.xlabel("$t$", fontsize=16)
plt.axis([-2, 4, -1, 2.5])
plt.legend(loc="upper right", fontsize=16)
save_fig("hinge_plot")
plt.show()
Saving figure hinge_plot

Extra material

Training time

In [35]:
X, y = make_moons(n_samples=1000, noise=0.4, random_state=42)
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "bs")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "g^")
Out[35]:
[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x7f936084ecd0>]
In [36]:
import time

tol = 0.1
tols = []
times = []
for i in range(10):
    svm_clf = SVC(kernel="poly", gamma=3, C=10, tol=tol, verbose=1)
    t1 = time.time()
    svm_clf.fit(X, y)
    t2 = time.time()
    times.append(t2-t1)
    tols.append(tol)
    print(i, tol, t2-t1)
    tol /= 10
plt.semilogx(tols, times, "bo-")
plt.xlabel("Tolerance", fontsize=16)
plt.ylabel("Time (seconds)", fontsize=16)
plt.grid(True)
plt.show()
[LibSVM]0 0.1 0.2017989158630371
[LibSVM]1 0.01 0.19569611549377441
[LibSVM]2 0.001 0.23690319061279297
[LibSVM]3 0.0001 0.41855812072753906
[LibSVM]4 1e-05 0.7902979850769043
[LibSVM]5 1.0000000000000002e-06 0.6455130577087402
[LibSVM]6 1.0000000000000002e-07 0.7135508060455322
[LibSVM]7 1.0000000000000002e-08 0.7550830841064453
[LibSVM]8 1.0000000000000003e-09 0.8036937713623047
[LibSVM]9 1.0000000000000003e-10 0.7757120132446289

Linear SVM classifier implementation using Batch Gradient Descent

In [37]:
# Training set
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)] # petal length, petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.float64).reshape(-1, 1) # Iris virginica
In [38]:
from sklearn.base import BaseEstimator

class MyLinearSVC(BaseEstimator):
    def __init__(self, C=1, eta0=1, eta_d=10000, n_epochs=1000, random_state=None):
        self.C = C
        self.eta0 = eta0
        self.n_epochs = n_epochs
        self.random_state = random_state
        self.eta_d = eta_d

    def eta(self, epoch):
        return self.eta0 / (epoch + self.eta_d)
        
    def fit(self, X, y):
        # Random initialization
        if self.random_state:
            np.random.seed(self.random_state)
        w = np.random.randn(X.shape[1], 1) # n feature weights
        b = 0

        m = len(X)
        t = y * 2 - 1  # -1 if t==0, +1 if t==1
        X_t = X * t
        self.Js=[]

        # Training
        for epoch in range(self.n_epochs):
            support_vectors_idx = (X_t.dot(w) + t * b < 1).ravel()
            X_t_sv = X_t[support_vectors_idx]
            t_sv = t[support_vectors_idx]

            J = 1/2 * np.sum(w * w) + self.C * (np.sum(1 - X_t_sv.dot(w)) - b * np.sum(t_sv))
            self.Js.append(J)

            w_gradient_vector = w - self.C * np.sum(X_t_sv, axis=0).reshape(-1, 1)
            b_derivative = -self.C * np.sum(t_sv)
                
            w = w - self.eta(epoch) * w_gradient_vector
            b = b - self.eta(epoch) * b_derivative
            

        self.intercept_ = np.array([b])
        self.coef_ = np.array([w])
        support_vectors_idx = (X_t.dot(w) + t * b < 1).ravel()
        self.support_vectors_ = X[support_vectors_idx]
        return self

    def decision_function(self, X):
        return X.dot(self.coef_[0]) + self.intercept_[0]

    def predict(self, X):
        return (self.decision_function(X) >= 0).astype(np.float64)

C=2
svm_clf = MyLinearSVC(C=C, eta0 = 10, eta_d = 1000, n_epochs=60000, random_state=2)
svm_clf.fit(X, y)
svm_clf.predict(np.array([[5, 2], [4, 1]]))
Out[38]:
array([[1.],
       [0.]])
In [39]:
plt.plot(range(svm_clf.n_epochs), svm_clf.Js)
plt.axis([0, svm_clf.n_epochs, 0, 100])
Out[39]:
(0.0, 60000.0, 0.0, 100.0)
In [40]:
print(svm_clf.intercept_, svm_clf.coef_)
[-15.56761653] [[[2.28120287]
  [2.71621742]]]
In [41]:
svm_clf2 = SVC(kernel="linear", C=C)
svm_clf2.fit(X, y.ravel())
print(svm_clf2.intercept_, svm_clf2.coef_)
[-15.51721253] [[2.27128546 2.71287145]]
In [42]:
yr = y.ravel()
fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=2, figsize=(11, 3.2), sharey=True)
plt.sca(axes[0])
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==1], X[:, 1][yr==1], "g^", label="Iris virginica")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==0], X[:, 1][yr==0], "bs", label="Not Iris virginica")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf, 4, 6)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.title("MyLinearSVC", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([4, 6, 0.8, 2.8])
plt.legend(loc="upper left")

plt.sca(axes[1])
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==1], X[:, 1][yr==1], "g^")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==0], X[:, 1][yr==0], "bs")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(svm_clf2, 4, 6)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.title("SVC", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([4, 6, 0.8, 2.8])
Out[42]:
(4.0, 6.0, 0.8, 2.8)
In [43]:
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier

sgd_clf = SGDClassifier(loss="hinge", alpha=0.017, max_iter=1000, tol=1e-3, random_state=42)
sgd_clf.fit(X, y.ravel())

m = len(X)
t = y * 2 - 1  # -1 if t==0, +1 if t==1
X_b = np.c_[np.ones((m, 1)), X]  # Add bias input x0=1
X_b_t = X_b * t
sgd_theta = np.r_[sgd_clf.intercept_[0], sgd_clf.coef_[0]]
print(sgd_theta)
support_vectors_idx = (X_b_t.dot(sgd_theta) < 1).ravel()
sgd_clf.support_vectors_ = X[support_vectors_idx]
sgd_clf.C = C

plt.figure(figsize=(5.5,3.2))
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==1], X[:, 1][yr==1], "g^")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][yr==0], X[:, 1][yr==0], "bs")
plot_svc_decision_boundary(sgd_clf, 4, 6)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.title("SGDClassifier", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([4, 6, 0.8, 2.8])
[-12.52988101   1.94162342   1.84544824]
Out[43]:
(4.0, 6.0, 0.8, 2.8)

Exercise solutions

1. to 7.

See appendix A.

8.

Exercise: train a LinearSVC on a linearly separable dataset. Then train an SVC and a SGDClassifier on the same dataset. See if you can get them to produce roughly the same model.

Let's use the Iris dataset: the Iris Setosa and Iris Versicolor classes are linearly separable.

In [44]:
from sklearn import datasets

iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = iris["target"]

setosa_or_versicolor = (y == 0) | (y == 1)
X = X[setosa_or_versicolor]
y = y[setosa_or_versicolor]
In [45]:
from sklearn.svm import SVC, LinearSVC
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

C = 5
alpha = 1 / (C * len(X))

lin_clf = LinearSVC(loss="hinge", C=C, random_state=42)
svm_clf = SVC(kernel="linear", C=C)
sgd_clf = SGDClassifier(loss="hinge", learning_rate="constant", eta0=0.001, alpha=alpha,
                        max_iter=1000, tol=1e-3, random_state=42)

scaler = StandardScaler()
X_scaled = scaler.fit_transform(X)

lin_clf.fit(X_scaled, y)
svm_clf.fit(X_scaled, y)
sgd_clf.fit(X_scaled, y)

print("LinearSVC:                   ", lin_clf.intercept_, lin_clf.coef_)
print("SVC:                         ", svm_clf.intercept_, svm_clf.coef_)
print("SGDClassifier(alpha={:.5f}):".format(sgd_clf.alpha), sgd_clf.intercept_, sgd_clf.coef_)
LinearSVC:                    [0.28475098] [[1.05364854 1.09903804]]
SVC:                          [0.31896852] [[1.1203284  1.02625193]]
SGDClassifier(alpha=0.00200): [0.117] [[0.77714169 0.72981762]]

Let's plot the decision boundaries of these three models:

In [46]:
# Compute the slope and bias of each decision boundary
w1 = -lin_clf.coef_[0, 0]/lin_clf.coef_[0, 1]
b1 = -lin_clf.intercept_[0]/lin_clf.coef_[0, 1]
w2 = -svm_clf.coef_[0, 0]/svm_clf.coef_[0, 1]
b2 = -svm_clf.intercept_[0]/svm_clf.coef_[0, 1]
w3 = -sgd_clf.coef_[0, 0]/sgd_clf.coef_[0, 1]
b3 = -sgd_clf.intercept_[0]/sgd_clf.coef_[0, 1]

# Transform the decision boundary lines back to the original scale
line1 = scaler.inverse_transform([[-10, -10 * w1 + b1], [10, 10 * w1 + b1]])
line2 = scaler.inverse_transform([[-10, -10 * w2 + b2], [10, 10 * w2 + b2]])
line3 = scaler.inverse_transform([[-10, -10 * w3 + b3], [10, 10 * w3 + b3]])

# Plot all three decision boundaries
plt.figure(figsize=(11, 4))
plt.plot(line1[:, 0], line1[:, 1], "k:", label="LinearSVC")
plt.plot(line2[:, 0], line2[:, 1], "b--", linewidth=2, label="SVC")
plt.plot(line3[:, 0], line3[:, 1], "r-", label="SGDClassifier")
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==1], X[:, 1][y==1], "bs") # label="Iris versicolor"
plt.plot(X[:, 0][y==0], X[:, 1][y==0], "yo") # label="Iris setosa"
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.legend(loc="upper center", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 5.5, 0, 2])

plt.show()

Close enough!

9.

Exercise: train an SVM classifier on the MNIST dataset. Since SVM classifiers are binary classifiers, you will need to use one-versus-all to classify all 10 digits. You may want to tune the hyperparameters using small validation sets to speed up the process. What accuracy can you reach?

First, let's load the dataset and split it into a training set and a test set. We could use train_test_split() but people usually just take the first 60,000 instances for the training set, and the last 10,000 instances for the test set (this makes it possible to compare your model's performance with others):

Warning: since Scikit-Learn 0.24, fetch_openml() returns a Pandas DataFrame by default. To avoid this, we use as_frame=False.

In [47]:
from sklearn.datasets import fetch_openml
mnist = fetch_openml('mnist_784', version=1, cache=True, as_frame=False)

X = mnist["data"]
y = mnist["target"].astype(np.uint8)

X_train = X[:60000]
y_train = y[:60000]
X_test = X[60000:]
y_test = y[60000:]

Many training algorithms are sensitive to the order of the training instances, so it's generally good practice to shuffle them first. However, the dataset is already shuffled, so we do not need to do it.

Let's start simple, with a linear SVM classifier. It will automatically use the One-vs-All (also called One-vs-the-Rest, OvR) strategy, so there's nothing special we need to do. Easy!

Warning: this may take a few minutes depending on your hardware.

In [48]:
lin_clf = LinearSVC(random_state=42)
lin_clf.fit(X_train, y_train)
/Users/ageron/miniconda3/envs/tf2/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/svm/_base.py:977: ConvergenceWarning: Liblinear failed to converge, increase the number of iterations.
  "the number of iterations.", ConvergenceWarning)
Out[48]:
LinearSVC(random_state=42)

Let's make predictions on the training set and measure the accuracy (we don't want to measure it on the test set yet, since we have not selected and trained the final model yet):

In [49]:
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score

y_pred = lin_clf.predict(X_train)
accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred)
Out[49]:
0.8348666666666666

Okay, 89.5% accuracy on MNIST is pretty bad. This linear model is certainly too simple for MNIST, but perhaps we just needed to scale the data first:

In [50]:
scaler = StandardScaler()
X_train_scaled = scaler.fit_transform(X_train.astype(np.float32))
X_test_scaled = scaler.transform(X_test.astype(np.float32))

Warning: this may take a few minutes depending on your hardware.

In [51]:
lin_clf = LinearSVC(random_state=42)
lin_clf.fit(X_train_scaled, y_train)
/Users/ageron/miniconda3/envs/tf2/lib/python3.7/site-packages/sklearn/svm/_base.py:977: ConvergenceWarning: Liblinear failed to converge, increase the number of iterations.
  "the number of iterations.", ConvergenceWarning)
Out[51]:
LinearSVC(random_state=42)
In [52]:
y_pred = lin_clf.predict(X_train_scaled)
accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred)
Out[52]:
0.9217333333333333

That's much better (we cut the error rate by about 25%), but still not great at all for MNIST. If we want to use an SVM, we will have to use a kernel. Let's try an SVC with an RBF kernel (the default).

Note: to be future-proof we set gamma="scale" since it will be the default value in Scikit-Learn 0.22.

In [53]:
svm_clf = SVC(gamma="scale")
svm_clf.fit(X_train_scaled[:10000], y_train[:10000])
Out[53]:
SVC()
In [54]:
y_pred = svm_clf.predict(X_train_scaled)
accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred)
Out[54]:
0.9455333333333333

That's promising, we get better performance even though we trained the model on 6 times less data. Let's tune the hyperparameters by doing a randomized search with cross validation. We will do this on a small dataset just to speed up the process:

In [55]:
from sklearn.model_selection import RandomizedSearchCV
from scipy.stats import reciprocal, uniform

param_distributions = {"gamma": reciprocal(0.001, 0.1), "C": uniform(1, 10)}
rnd_search_cv = RandomizedSearchCV(svm_clf, param_distributions, n_iter=10, verbose=2, cv=3)
rnd_search_cv.fit(X_train_scaled[:1000], y_train[:1000])
Fitting 3 folds for each of 10 candidates, totalling 30 fits
[CV] C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425 .................
[Parallel(n_jobs=1)]: Using backend SequentialBackend with 1 concurrent workers.
[CV] .. C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425, total=   0.8s
[CV] C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425 .................
[Parallel(n_jobs=1)]: Done   1 out of   1 | elapsed:    0.8s remaining:    0.0s
[CV] .. C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425, total=   0.8s
[CV] C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425 .................
[CV] .. C=5.847490967837556, gamma=0.004375955271336425, total=   0.8s
[CV] C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304 .................
[CV] .. C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304 .................
[CV] .. C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304 .................
[CV] .. C=2.544266730893301, gamma=0.024987648190235304, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553 .................
[CV] .. C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553, total=   0.8s
[CV] C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553 .................
[CV] .. C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553, total=   0.8s
[CV] C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553 .................
[CV] .. C=2.199505425963898, gamma=0.009340106304825553, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618 ..................
[CV] ... C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618 ..................
[CV] ... C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618 ..................
[CV] ... C=7.327377306009368, gamma=0.04329656504133618, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695 .................
[CV] .. C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695 .................
[CV] .. C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695 .................
[CV] .. C=7.830259944094713, gamma=0.009933958471354695, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175 .................
[CV] .. C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175 .................
[CV] .. C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175 .................
[CV] .. C=6.867969780001033, gamma=0.027511132256566175, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=3.584980864373988, gamma=0.01237128009623357 ..................
[CV] ... C=3.584980864373988, gamma=0.01237128009623357, total=   0.9s
[CV] C=3.584980864373988, gamma=0.0123712800962