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Functions are arguably the most important topic in the secondary math curriculum

A function accepts one or more inputs and returns an output.

In [1]:
# Here is a function that takes in one input x, and outputs its square, x^2.

def f(x):
    return x*x

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In [2]:
# Here is a function that takes in one input x, and outputs x^2-1 if x<0 and 4x-1 otherwise

def g(x):
    if x<0: return x*x-1
    else: return 4*x-1

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In [3]:
# Here is a function that takes in one input x, and outputs x^2+1 if x<-2, 5 if -2<x<2, and 2x+1 otherwise

def h(x):
    if x<-2: return x*x+1
    elif -2<=x<2: return 5
    else: return 2*x+1

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Let's plot these three functions f(x), g(x), h(x)

To do this, we import three Python libraries called "numpy", "matplotlib", and "math"

In [4]:
%matplotlib inline
from numpy import *
from matplotlib.pyplot import * 
from math import *

x = linspace(-5,5, 100)
y1 = vectorize(f)(x)
y2 = vectorize(g)(x)
y3 = vectorize(h)(x)

plot(x, y1, 'red') 
plot(x, y2, 'blue')
plot(x, y3, 'green') 
title("Comparing our three functions")
xlabel("x values")
ylabel("y values");

Challenge Activity: Make Your Own Shape!

Define two functions f(x) and g(x) so that the plots of f(x) and g(x) form the object of your choice.

Feel free to use whatever functions you wish, including sin, cos, abs, exp, and log.

In [5]:
def f(x):
    if x<0: return x*x
    else: return 3*x

def g(x):
    if x<0: return -x*x+30
    else: return -3*x+30
x = linspace(-5,5, 100)
y1 = vectorize(f)(x)
y2 = vectorize(g)(x)

plot(x, y1, 'red') 
plot(x, y2, 'red')
title("Our fish")

Challenge Activity: Turn the Sad Face into a Happy Face.

Play with this picture below to make the eyes, nose, and mouth look different. Be creative!

In [6]:
def f1(x): return sqrt(36-x*x)

def f2(x): return -sqrt(36-x*x)

def f3(x): 
    if -4<x<-2: return sqrt(1-(x+3)*(x+3))+3
    elif -1<x<1: return sqrt(1-x*x)
    elif 2<x<4: return sqrt(1-(x-3)*(x-3))+3
    else: return

def f4(x): 
    if -4<x<-2: return -sqrt(1-(x+3)*(x+3))+3
    elif -1<x<1: return -sqrt(1-x*x)
    elif 2<x<4: return -sqrt(1-(x-3)*(x-3))+3
    else: return

def f5(x): 
    if -3<x<3: return -(x*x)/6-3
    else: return
x = linspace(-6,6, 10000)
y1 = vectorize(f1)(x)
y2 = vectorize(f2)(x)
y3 = vectorize(f3)(x)
y4 = vectorize(f4)(x)
y5 = vectorize(f5)(x)

plot(x, y1, 'red') 
plot(x, y2, 'red')
plot(x, y3, 'red')
plot(x, y4, 'red')
plot(x, y5, 'red')


Functions are used to solve hard problems, taking in inputs to return an output.

This is one of the BIG ideas of computational thinking!

In [7]:
# Here is a function that takes in two inputs (city and sport) and outputs the name of that city's sport team

def teamname(city, sport):
    if city=="Edmonton" and sport=="Football": return "Go Eskimos"
    elif city=="Edmonton" and sport=="Hockey": return "Go Oilers"
    elif city=="Calgary" and sport=="Football": return "Go Stamps"
    elif city=="Calgary" and sport=="Hockey": return "Go Flames"
    elif city=="Vancouver" and sport=="Football": return "Go Lions"
    elif city=="Vancouver" and sport=="Hockey": return "Go Canucks"
    else: return "Toronto Sucks"

print(teamname("Edmonton", "Hockey"))
print(teamname("Edmonton", "Football"))
print(teamname("Edmonton", "Soccer"))
Go Oilers
Go Eskimos
Toronto Sucks

Can you spot the different FUNCTIONS that appear in the breakthrough technology shown below?

In [8]:
from IPython.display import YouTubeVideo

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