Deep Learning Models -- A collection of various deep learning architectures, models, and tips for TensorFlow and PyTorch in Jupyter Notebooks.

In :
%load_ext watermark
%watermark -a 'Sebastian Raschka' -v -p torch

Sebastian Raschka

CPython 3.6.8
IPython 7.2.0

torch 1.0.0

• Runs on CPU or GPU (if available)

# Model Zoo -Standardizing Images¶

This notebook provides an example for working with standardized images, that is, images where the image pixels in each image has mean zero and unit variance across the channel.

The general equation for z-score standardization is computed as

$$x' = \frac{x_i - \mu}{\sigma}$$

where $\mu$ is the mean and $\sigma$ is the standard deviation of the training set, respectively. Then $x_i'$ is the scaled feature feature value, and $x_i$ is the original feature value.

I.e, for grayscale images, we would obtain 1 mean and 1 standard deviation. For RGB images (3 color channels), we would obtain 3 mean values and 3 standard deviations.

## Imports¶

In :
import time
import numpy as np
import torch
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torchvision import datasets
from torchvision import transforms

if torch.cuda.is_available():
torch.backends.cudnn.deterministic = True


## Settings and Dataset¶

In :
##########################
### SETTINGS
##########################

# Device
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")

# Hyperparameters
random_seed = 1
learning_rate = 0.05
num_epochs = 10
batch_size = 128

# Architecture
num_classes = 10


### Compute the Mean and Standard Deviation for Normalization¶

First, we need to determine the mean and standard deviation for each color channel in the training set. Since we assume the entire dataset does not fit into the computer memory all at once, we do this in an incremental fashion, as shown below.

In :
##############################
##############################

train_dataset = datasets.MNIST(root='data',
train=True,
transform=transforms.ToTensor(),

batch_size=batch_size,
shuffle=False)

train_mean = []
train_std = []

for i, image in enumerate(train_loader, 0):
numpy_image = image.numpy()

batch_mean = np.mean(numpy_image, axis=(0, 2, 3))
batch_std = np.std(numpy_image, axis=(0, 2, 3))

train_mean.append(batch_mean)
train_std.append(batch_std)

train_mean = torch.tensor(np.mean(train_mean, axis=0))
train_std = torch.tensor(np.mean(train_std, axis=0))

print('Mean:', train_mean)
print('Std Dev:', train_std)

Mean: tensor([0.1307])
Std Dev: tensor([0.3077])


Note that

• For RGB images (3 color channels), we would get 3 means and 3 standard deviations.
• The transforms.ToTensor() method converts images to [0, 1] range, which is why the mean and standard deviation values are below 1.

Now we can use a custom transform function to standardize the dataset according the the mean and standard deviation we computed above.

In :
custom_transform = transforms.Compose([transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize(mean=train_mean, std=train_std)])

In :
##########################
### MNIST DATASET
##########################

# Note transforms.ToTensor() scales input images
# to 0-1 range
train_dataset = datasets.MNIST(root='data',
train=True,
transform=custom_transform,

test_dataset = datasets.MNIST(root='data',
train=False,
transform=custom_transform)

batch_size=batch_size,
shuffle=True)

batch_size=batch_size,
shuffle=False)


Check that the dataset can be loaded:

In :
# Checking the dataset
print('Image batch dimensions:', images.shape)
print('Image label dimensions:', labels.shape)
break

Image batch dimensions: torch.Size([128, 1, 28, 28])
Image label dimensions: torch.Size()


For the given batch, check that the channel means and standard deviations are roughly 0 and 1, respectively:

In :
print('Channel mean:', torch.mean(images[:, 0, :, :]))
print('Channel std:', torch.std(images[:, 0, :, :]))

Channel mean: tensor(0.0035)
Channel std: tensor(1.0037)


## Model¶

In :
##########################
### MODEL
##########################

class ConvNet(torch.nn.Module):

def __init__(self, num_classes):
super(ConvNet, self).__init__()

# (w - k + 2*p)/s + 1 = o
# => p = (s(o-1) - w + k)/2

# 28x28x1 => 28x28x4
self.conv_1 = torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=1,
out_channels=4,
kernel_size=(3, 3),
stride=(1, 1),
padding=1) # (1(28-1) - 28 + 3) / 2 = 1
# 28x28x4 => 14x14x4
self.pool_1 = torch.nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=(2, 2),
stride=(2, 2),
padding=0) # (2(14-1) - 28 + 2) = 0
# 14x14x4 => 14x14x8
self.conv_2 = torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=4,
out_channels=8,
kernel_size=(3, 3),
stride=(1, 1),
padding=1) # (1(14-1) - 14 + 3) / 2 = 1
# 14x14x8 => 7x7x8
self.pool_2 = torch.nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=(2, 2),
stride=(2, 2),
padding=0) # (2(7-1) - 14 + 2) = 0

self.linear_1 = torch.nn.Linear(7*7*8, num_classes)

def forward(self, x):
out = self.conv_1(x)
out = F.relu(out)
out = self.pool_1(out)

out = self.conv_2(out)
out = F.relu(out)
out = self.pool_2(out)

logits = self.linear_1(out.view(-1, 7*7*8))
probas = F.softmax(logits, dim=1)
return logits, probas

torch.manual_seed(random_seed)
model = ConvNet(num_classes=num_classes)

model = model.to(device)

optimizer = torch.optim.SGD(model.parameters(), lr=learning_rate)


## Training¶

In :
def compute_accuracy(model, data_loader):
correct_pred, num_examples = 0, 0
features = features.to(device)
targets = targets.to(device)
logits, probas = model(features)
_, predicted_labels = torch.max(probas, 1)
num_examples += targets.size(0)
correct_pred += (predicted_labels == targets).sum()
return correct_pred.float()/num_examples * 100

start_time = time.time()
for epoch in range(num_epochs):
model = model.train()
for batch_idx, (features, targets) in enumerate(train_loader):

features = features.to(device)
targets = targets.to(device)

### FORWARD AND BACK PROP
logits, probas = model(features)
cost = F.cross_entropy(logits, targets)

cost.backward()

### UPDATE MODEL PARAMETERS
optimizer.step()

### LOGGING
if not batch_idx % 50:
print ('Epoch: %03d/%03d | Batch %03d/%03d | Cost: %.4f'
%(epoch+1, num_epochs, batch_idx,

model = model.eval()
print('Epoch: %03d/%03d training accuracy: %.2f%%' % (
epoch+1, num_epochs,

print('Time elapsed: %.2f min' % ((time.time() - start_time)/60))

print('Total Training Time: %.2f min' % ((time.time() - start_time)/60))

Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 2.3170
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.9476
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.4007
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.2662
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.3218
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.2300
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.1494
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.1837
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.2072
Epoch: 001/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.1541
Epoch: 001/010 training accuracy: 95.68%
Time elapsed: 0.27 min
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.1077
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.1394
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.1593
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.2174
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.1093
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.1314
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.1019
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.1102
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.1028
Epoch: 002/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0678
Epoch: 002/010 training accuracy: 96.50%
Time elapsed: 0.54 min
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.0713
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.1317
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.1434
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0452
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0783
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.2011
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.1132
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0930
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0842
Epoch: 003/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.1059
Epoch: 003/010 training accuracy: 96.39%
Time elapsed: 0.81 min
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.1334
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.1208
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.0962
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.1293
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0977
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0504
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0801
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0968
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.2138
Epoch: 004/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0946
Epoch: 004/010 training accuracy: 97.52%
Time elapsed: 1.08 min
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.0960
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0132
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.1012
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0437
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0386
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0461
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.1063
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0972
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0912
Epoch: 005/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0633
Epoch: 005/010 training accuracy: 97.84%
Time elapsed: 1.35 min
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.0771
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0245
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.0373
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0459
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.1140
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0465
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0166
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0145
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0621
Epoch: 006/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0570
Epoch: 006/010 training accuracy: 97.94%
Time elapsed: 1.62 min
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.1529
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0283
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.0463
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0623
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0637
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0718
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0098
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0853
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0958
Epoch: 007/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0633
Epoch: 007/010 training accuracy: 98.17%
Time elapsed: 1.89 min
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.1090
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0963
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.1356
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0197
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0714
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0509
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0830
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0872
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0888
Epoch: 008/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.1107
Epoch: 008/010 training accuracy: 97.96%
Time elapsed: 2.15 min
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.0666
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0787
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.1526
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0501
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0628
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.1503
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0475
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.0390
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0298
Epoch: 009/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0184
Epoch: 009/010 training accuracy: 98.25%
Time elapsed: 2.42 min
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 000/469 | Cost: 0.0119
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 050/469 | Cost: 0.0582
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 100/469 | Cost: 0.0242
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 150/469 | Cost: 0.0256
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 200/469 | Cost: 0.0234
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 250/469 | Cost: 0.0455
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 300/469 | Cost: 0.0744
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 350/469 | Cost: 0.1547
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 400/469 | Cost: 0.0181
Epoch: 010/010 | Batch 450/469 | Cost: 0.0622
Epoch: 010/010 training accuracy: 98.18%
Time elapsed: 2.69 min
Total Training Time: 2.69 min


## Evaluation¶

In :
print('Test accuracy: %.2f%%' % (compute_accuracy(model, test_loader)))

Test accuracy: 98.07%

In :
%watermark -iv

numpy       1.15.4
torch       1.0.0