Gate String Lists Tutorial

This tutorial will show you how to create and use GateString objects, which represent an ordered sequence (or "string") of quantum gate operations. In almost all cases, you'll be using a list (or even a list of lists!) of GateStrings, so we'll often be talking about "gate string lists". You may have noticed in Tutorial 00 that we had to generate gate string lists of "fiducials" and "germs" in order to populate the data template file which GST analyzes to produce its estimates.

A GateString object is nearly identical, and sometimes interchangeable, with a Python tuple of gate labels (i.e. the names beginning with G that label the gate operations in a GateSet). They can be accessed and operated upon just as a standard Python tuple. The primary difference between a GateString and a tuple is that a GateString also contains a "string representation" of the gate sequence. This string representation gets carried along for the ride until it's needed, typically when writing a the gate string to a file. The string representation must evaluate, using pyGSTi's allowed text format for gate strings (see below), to the tuple-of-gate-labels, or "tuple representation". The string representation is intended to contain a compact and intuitive human-readable form of the gate sequence that is used for display purposes. For example, the gate string ('Gx','Gx','Gx','Gx','Gx') might have the string representation "Gx^5". If needed, the tuple and string representations of any GateString can be accessed via .tup and .str respectively.

Gate strings are central to Gate Set Tomography, as they describe both real and "simulated" experiments. A GateString's ordered sequence tells the experimentalist which gates they must execute on their hardware and likewise what order to compose (i.e. multiply) the gate matrices contained in a GateSet. The outcomes of an experiment correspond to different SPAM labels (c.f. the gate set tutorial), and so by repeating an experiment one obtains counts and thereby frequencies for each SPAM label. Given a GateSet one can obtain corresponding probabilities by muliplying gate matrices and contracting the product between the state preparation and POVM effect vectors associated with each SPAM label.

The ordering direction is important. The elements of a GateString are read from left-to-right, meaning the first (left-most) gate label is performed first. This is very natural for experiments since one can read the gate string as a script, executing each gate as one reads from left to right. However, since we insist on "normal" matrix multiplication conventions, the ordering of the matrix product is reversed from that of the gate string. For example, the gate string ('Ga','Gb','Gc'), in which Ga is performed first, corresponds to the matrix product $G_c G_b G_a$. The probability of this gate string for a SPAM label associated with the (column) vectors ($\rho_0$,$E_0$) is given by $E_0^T G_c G_b G_a \rho_0$, which can be interpreted as "prepare state 0 first, then apply gate A, then B, then C, and finally measure effect 0". While this nuance is typically hidden from the user (the GateSet functions which compute products and probabilities from GateStrings perform the order reversal internally), it becomes very important if you plan to perform such products by hand.

We'll now go over some examples of how to create and use a single GateString.

In [1]:
from __future__ import print_function
In [2]:
import pygsti # the main pyGSTi module
import as pc  #shorthand
from import std1Q_XY #a standard gateset & peripherals

A simple example: the single GateString

The cell below show how to create a GateString object from a tuple, optionally with a corresponding string representation. It demonstrates how to access the tuple and string representations directly, and the tuple-like operations that can be performed on a GateString.

In [3]:
#Construction of a GateString
s1 = pygsti.objects.GateString( ('Gx','Gx') ) # from a tuple
s2 = pygsti.objects.GateString( ('Gx','Gx'), "Gx^2" ) # from tuple and string representations (must match!)
s3 = pygsti.objects.GateString( None, "Gx^2" ) # from just a string representation

#All of these are equivalent (even though their string representations aren't -- only tuples are compared)
assert(s1 == s2 == s3)

#Printing displays the string representation
print("s1 = %s" % s1)
print("s2 = %s" % s2)
print("s3 = %s" % s3, end='\n\n')

#Casting to tuple displays the tuple representation
print("Printing tuple(.)")
print("s1 =", tuple(s1))
print("s2 =", tuple(s2))
print("s3 =", tuple(s3), end='\n\n')

#Access to tuple or string representation directly:
print("s1.tup =", s1.tup, ",  s1.str = ", s1.str, end='\n\n')

assert(s1 == ('Gx','Gx')) #can compare with tuples
s4 = s1+s2 #addition (note this concatenates string reps)
s5 = s1*3  #integer-multplication (note this exponentiates in string rep)
print("s1 + s2 = ",s4, ", tuple = ", tuple(s4))
print("s1*3    = ",s5, ", tuple = ", tuple(s5), end='\n\n')
s1 = GxGx
s2 = Gx^2
s3 = Gx^2

Printing tuple(.)
s1 = ('Gx', 'Gx')
s2 = ('Gx', 'Gx')
s3 = ('Gx', 'Gx')

s1.tup = ('Gx', 'Gx') ,  s1.str =  GxGx

s1 + s2 =  GxGxGx^2 , tuple =  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
s1*3    =  (GxGx)^3 , tuple =  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')

List Construction Functions: and create_gatestring_list

Usually you'll be working with entire lists of GateString objects which define some part of the experiments utilized by Gate Set Tomography. pyGSTi provides several functions for constructing gate string lists, which we not demonstrate.

The workhorse function is, which executes its positional arguments within a nested loop given by iterable keyword arguments. That's a mouthful, so let's look at a few examples:

In [4]:
As = [('a1',),('a2',)]
Bs = [('b1','b2'), ('b3','b4')]

def rep2(x):
    return x+x

list1 = pc.create_gatestring_list("a", a=As)
list2 = pc.create_gatestring_list("a+b", a=As, b=Bs, order=['a','b'])
list3 = pc.create_gatestring_list("R(a)+c", a=As, c=[('c',)], R=rep2)

print("list1 = %s" % list(map(tuple, list1)))
print("list2 = %s" % list2)
print("list3 = %s" % list(map(str,list3)))
list1 = [('a1',), ('a2',)]
list2 = [GateString(a1b1b2), GateString(a1b3b4), GateString(a2b1b2), GateString(a2b3b4)]
list3 = ['a1a1c', 'a2a2c']

Many of the gate sequences used by Gate Set Tomography are composed of three parts. A "preparation fiducial" sequence is followed by a "repeated germ" sequence, which is followed by a "measurement fiducial" sequence. We won't get into why this structure is used, but simply use this fact to motivate looking at gate strings of the form $f_1 + R(g) + f_2$, where the $f_1$ and $f_2$ fiducial sequences are simple short sequences are $R(g)$ is a possibly long sequence that is generated by repeating a short sequence $g$ called a "germ".

It is possible to generate "repeated germ" sequences in several ways using the functions . In modern GST, germ sequences are always repeated an integer number of times rather than being truncated to a precise length, so repeat_with_max_length is used instead of repeat_and_truncate. Below we demonstrate the use of these functions.

In [5]:
print(pc.repeat_and_truncate(('A', 'B', 'C'), 5)) #args (x,N): repeat x until it is exactly length N

print(pc.repeat_with_max_length(('A', 'B', 'C'), 5)) #args (x,N): repeat x the maximum integer number of times so len(x) < N

print(pc.repeat_count_with_max_length(('A', 'B', 'C'), 5)) #args (x,N): the maximum integer number of times so len(x) < N
('A', 'B', 'C', 'A', 'B')
('A', 'B', 'C')

We can combine a repeated germ sequence between two fiducial sequences using create_gatestring_list. This demonstrates the power of the create_gatestring_list to perform nested loops. We also introduce the "bulk-conversion" function gatestring_list, which creates a list of GateString objects from a list of tuples.

In [6]:
fids  = pc.gatestring_list( [ ('Gf0',), ('Gf1',)    ] ) #fiducial strings
germs = pc.gatestring_list( [ ('G0',), ('G1a','G1b')] ) #germ strings

gateStrings1 = pc.create_gatestring_list("f0+germ*e+f1", f0=fids, f1=fids,
                                       germ=germs, e=2, order=["germ","f0","f1"])
print("gateStrings1 = \n", "\n".join(map(str,gateStrings1)),"\n")

gateStrings2 = pc.create_gatestring_list("f0+T(germ,N)+f1", f0=fids, f1=fids,
                                        germ=germs, N=3, T=pc.repeat_and_truncate,

print("gateStrings2 = \n", "\n".join(map(str,gateStrings2)),"\n")

gateStrings3 = pc.create_gatestring_list("f0+T(germ,N)+f1", f0=fids, f1=fids,
                                        germ=germs, N=3, T=pc.repeat_with_max_length,
print("gateStrings3 = \n", "\n".join(map(str,gateStrings3)), "\n")
gateStrings1 = 

gateStrings2 = 

gateStrings3 = 

In addition to create_gatestring_list, the functions provide ways of constructing common gate string lists. The example below shows how to construct all possible gate strings within a certain length range, as well as how to construct the set of gate strings needed to run Linear Gate Set Tomography given a set of fiducial strings.

In [7]:
myGates = [ 'Gx', 'Gy' ]  #gate labels -- often just gateset.gates.keys()
allStringsInLengthRange = pc.list_all_gatestrings(myGates, minlength=0, maxlength=2)
print("\nAll strings using %s up to length 2 = \n" \
    % str(myGates), "\n".join(map(str,allStringsInLengthRange)))
All strings using ['Gx', 'Gy'] up to length 2 = 
In [8]:
myFiducialList = pc.gatestring_list([ ('Gf1',), ('Gf2',) ])  #list of fiducials

#Create spam specs which is just a tuple of two lists SpamSpec objects: one list  
# for preparation, the other for measurment. Each SpamSpec object associates a 
# fiducial gate string with a state prep (for preparation fiducials)
# or a POVM effect (for measurement fiducials).  In this example, since we're 
# just interested in the LGST strings, the state preps and POVM effects do not
# enter and are irrelevant.
mySpecs = pc.build_spam_specs(fiducialGateStrings=myFiducialList) 

lgstStrings = pc.list_lgst_gatestrings(mySpecs,myGates)

print("\nLGST strings = \n","\n".join(map(str,lgstStrings)))
LGST strings = 

Generating gate string lists for GST (and further tutorials)

As a final full-fledged example we demonstrate functions which generate gate string lists for running extended LGST (eLGST or EXLGST) and long-sequence GST (LSGST) from lists of gates, fiducials, germs, and maximum lengths. eLGST and LSGST are two different algorithms for performing Gate Set Tomography (more detail will be given on these in the Algorithms tutorial). The important different between the two for our purposes is that eLGST does not include fiducial-string prefixes or postfixes in its lists whereas LSGST does. The following example functions are very similar to,, and can be copied verbatim then modified in many circumstances to provide customized gate string generation.

Both functions product a list of lists of GateString objects. As we'll see in later tutorials, eLGST and LSGST Gate Set Tomography algorithms utilize an iterative approach whereby longer and longer gate strings are used in each successive iteration. Each list in the list-of-lists returned by these functions specifies the gate sequences to use during the corresponding iteration. Thus, each successive list contains longer gate strings. Each list is generated using a maximum length, and the list of maximum lengths, maxLengthList below, specifies the maximum length of each list in the lists-of-lists. Thus, maxLengthList should be an increasing list of integers (in practice, increasing by powers of two seems good) and the length of maxLengthList determines the length of the returned list-of-lists, i.e. the number of gate string lists.

In [9]:
def make_lsgst_lists(gateLabels, fiducialList, germList, maxLengthList):
    singleGates = pc.gatestring_list([(g,) for g in gateLabels])
    lgstStrings = pc.list_lgst_gatestrings(pc.build_spam_specs(fiducialList), gateLabels)
    lsgst_list = pc.gatestring_list([ () ]) #running list of all strings so far
    if maxLengthList[0] == 0:
        lsgst_listOfLists = [ lgstStrings ]
        maxLengthList = maxLengthList[1:]
    else: lsgst_listOfLists = [ ]
    for maxLen in maxLengthList:
        lsgst_list += pc.create_gatestring_list("f0+R(germ,N)+f1", f0=fiducialList,
                                           f1=fiducialList, germ=germList, N=maxLen,
        lsgst_listOfLists.append( pygsti.remove_duplicates(lgstStrings + lsgst_list) )

    print("%d LSGST sets w/lengths" % len(lsgst_listOfLists), map(len,lsgst_listOfLists))
    return lsgst_listOfLists

def make_elgst_lists(gateLabels, fiducialList, germList, maxLengthList):
    singleGates = pc.gatestring_list([(g,) for g in gateLabels])
    lgstStrings = pc.list_lgst_gatestrings(pc.build_spam_specs(fiducialList), gateLabels)
    elgst_list = pc.gatestring_list([ () ])  #running list of all strings so far
    if maxLengthList[0] == 0:
        elgst_listOfLists = [ singleGates ]
        maxLengthList = maxLengthList[1:]
    else: elgst_listOfLists = [ ]
    for maxLen in maxLengthList:
        elgst_list += pc.create_gatestring_list("R(germ,N)", germ=germList, N=maxLen,
        elgst_listOfLists.append( pygsti.remove_duplicates(singleGates + elgst_list) )

    print("%d eLGST sets w/lengths" % len(elgst_listOfLists),map(len,elgst_listOfLists))
    return elgst_listOfLists

We'll now use these functions to generate some lists we'll use in other tutorials. To do this, we'll use to write the lists to text files with one gate string (in it's string representation) per line.

In [10]:
gates = ['Gi','Gx','Gy']
fiducials = pc.gatestring_list([ (), ('Gx',), ('Gy',), ('Gx','Gx'), ('Gx','Gx','Gx'), ('Gy','Gy','Gy') ]) # fiducials for 1Q MUB
germs = pc.gatestring_list( [('Gx',), ('Gy',), ('Gi',), ('Gx', 'Gy',),
                             ('Gx', 'Gy', 'Gi',), ('Gx', 'Gi', 'Gy',),('Gx', 'Gi', 'Gi',), ('Gy', 'Gi', 'Gi',),
                             ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gi', 'Gy',), ('Gx', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gi',),
                             ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gy', 'Gx', 'Gy', 'Gy',)] )
maxLengths = [0,1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128,256]    
elgst_lists = make_elgst_lists(gates, fiducials, germs, maxLengths)
lsgst_lists = make_lsgst_lists(gates, fiducials, germs, maxLengths)    

print("\nFirst 20 items for dataset generation in label : string format")
for gateString in lsgst_lists[-1][0:30]:
    print(str(gateString).ljust(20), ": ", tuple(gateString))
10 eLGST sets w/lengths <map object at 0x10a2329e8>
10 LSGST sets w/lengths <map object at 0x10a262f98>

First 20 items for dataset generation in label : string format
{}                   :  ()
Gx                   :  ('Gx',)
Gy                   :  ('Gy',)
GxGx                 :  ('Gx', 'Gx')
GxGxGx               :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GyGyGy               :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
GxGy                 :  ('Gx', 'Gy')
GxGxGxGx             :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GxGyGyGy             :  ('Gx', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
GyGx                 :  ('Gy', 'Gx')
GyGy                 :  ('Gy', 'Gy')
GyGxGx               :  ('Gy', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GyGxGxGx             :  ('Gy', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GyGyGyGy             :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
GxGxGy               :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gy')
GxGxGxGxGx           :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GxGxGyGyGy           :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
GxGxGxGy             :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gy')
GxGxGxGxGxGx         :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GxGxGxGyGyGy         :  ('Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
GyGyGyGx             :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gx')
GyGyGyGxGx           :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GyGyGyGxGxGx         :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
GyGyGyGyGyGy         :  ('Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
(Gi)                 :  ('Gi',)
(Gi)Gx               :  ('Gi', 'Gx')
(Gi)Gy               :  ('Gi', 'Gy')
(Gi)GxGx             :  ('Gi', 'Gx', 'Gx')
(Gi)GxGxGx           :  ('Gi', 'Gx', 'Gx', 'Gx')
(Gi)GyGyGy           :  ('Gi', 'Gy', 'Gy', 'Gy')
In [11]:
#Write example gatestring list files for later use"tutorial_files/Example_FiducialList.txt", fiducials,"#My fiducial strings")"tutorial_files/Example_GermsList.txt", germs,"#My germ strings")"tutorial_files/Example_GatestringList.txt",lsgst_lists[-1],"#All the gate strings to be in my dataset")"tutorial_files/Example_DatasetTemplate.txt",lsgst_lists[-1])

for l,lst in zip(maxLengths,elgst_lists):"tutorial_files/Example_eLGSTlist%d.txt" % l,lst,
                                "# eLGST gate strings for max length %d" % l)

for l,lst in zip(maxLengths,lsgst_lists):"tutorial_files/Example_LSGSTlist%d.txt" % l,lst,
                                "# LSGST gate strings for max length %d" % l)
#Also write the max lengths we used to file
import json
json.dump(maxLengths, open("tutorial_files/Example_maxLengths.json","w"))