In :
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline


### Lecture 8:¶

• about DataFrames and Series, two new data structures, that are part of the Pandas package

• some basic filtering tricks with Pandas

• how to read in and save data files with Pandas

### More tricks in matplotlib.¶

A few lectures ago we read in the record of an earthquake and plotted it:

In :
EQ=np.loadtxt('Datasets/seismicRecord/earthquake.txt') # read in data
plt.plot(EQ,'r-') # plots as a red line
plt.xlabel('Arbitrary Time') # puts a label on the X axis
plt.ylabel('Velocity'); # puts a label on the Y axis 1) What are the time units?

2) Seismologists can recognize the arrival of different phases, including the "P" wave (for primary) and the "S" wave (for secondary or also shear). It would be nice to label the P and S wave arrivals.

So let's start with point one, converting the arbitrary time units to minutes.

The measurement rate of this seismometer was 20 measurements per second. Let's convert this to minutes. First we'll need to create a data structure (say, an array) of the original "arbitrary time" and then convert "arbitrary time" to minutes by dividing by 1200 (the number of seconds in 20 minutes):

$20{\hbox{measurements}\over {\hbox{second}}} \times 60 {\hbox{second}\over {\hbox{minute}}} =1200 {\hbox{measurements}\over {\hbox{minute}}}$.

To create a data structure of 'arbitrary time' with the same length as the original array, we can use the built-in len( ) function which gives us the length of a list or a 1D array, then use np.arange( ) to give us an array from 0 to the length of the array. Because it is an array (and not a list), we can divide the whole array by 1200 to create a new array that is in minutes.
We can then plot the minutes on the $x$-axis and the velocities on the $y$-axis:

In :
velocity=np.loadtxt('Datasets/seismicRecord/earthquake.txt') # read in data
# remember np.arange?  it makes an array that is N long.
# here, we want N to be the length of the acceleration array, so len(acceleration)
time_units=np.arange(len(velocity)) # makes an array of arbitrary time units
# now I want an array that is normalized to minutes:
minutes=time_units/1200. # sampling rate=20/sec = 1/1200 minutes
# the plt.plot method can plot X, versus Y with plt.plot(X,Y), so:
plt.plot(minutes,velocity,'r-') # plots X=Minutes, Y= velocity as a red line
# we can change the labels to reflect the new reality:
plt.xlabel('Minutes') # puts a label on the X axis
plt.ylabel('Velocity'); # puts a label on the Y axis There is something you should notice in the above script.

Did you see you we just took the time_units array and divided it by 1200? 1200 is a scalar, so each element is divided by 1200. Try that with a list! As we did a few lectures ago, we can make a list with range( ) that is very similar to time_units but a list, not an NumPy array, but if we try to divide it by scalar, we get an error!

In :
list_of_units= range(360)
list_of_units/1200.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-3-350a17601d0d> in <module>
1 list_of_units= range(360)
----> 2 list_of_units/1200.

TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for /: 'range' and 'float'

As mentioned before, this is one big advantage of arrays over lists.

### Saving plots and applying notes¶

Saving turns out to be easy with the plt.savefig( ) method. The argument is the desired filename (including any directory names if desired).

It would also be handy to label the 'P' and 'S' wave arrivals. You may remember that the first wave that hits a station is the 'P' wave (for primary). The second wave is the 'S' wave (for secondary). P waves are 'compressional' waves, while the S waves are 'shear' waves. They are a bit slower, which is why they arrive second. So, let's label the arrivals in our plot.

To put notes on a figure, we use plt.text( ) which has many options. Check out this web site for hints on making beautiful notes:

http://matplotlib.org/users/text_props.html

So the keyword arguments we want are rotation which allows us to rotate the note by some angle (say, 90), and the vertical (verticalalignment or va) and horizontal (horizontalalignment or ha) alignments with respect to the x and y values given.

In :
# same plot as before:
plt.plot(minutes,velocity,'r-') # plots as a red line
plt.xlabel('Minutes') # puts a label on the X axis
plt.ylabel('Velocity') # puts a label on the Y axis
# here I add a few more decorations with the plt.text method
plt.text(1.08,100000, "P wave",rotation=90,va='bottom',ha='center') # put on the P wave label
plt.text(11.76,-70000, "S wave",rotation=90,va='top',ha='center') # put on the S wave label
plt.ylim([-150000,250000]) # increase vertical axis bounds to include S wave label
plt.savefig('seismogram.png') # let's just save this as a png file. ### Let's do some seismology!¶

The farther away an earthquake is from a receiver, the more time there is between the arrivals of the P and S waves. This makes sense if you think about racing a little kid (who is on a tricycle) around a track. The distance between you will just keep increasing as you run because the kid on the trike is slower (like the S wave). [Well, until you lap the little tyke.]

You can use the difference between the arrival times of the two waves to calculate the distance to the earthquake source, if we know the velocities of the waves through the Earth. So first we need to know how these two waves behave.

There are plenty of data on earthquakes and the arrival times of different waves. Here is a short video demonstration.

https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/traveltime_curves_how_they_are_created

(click on the video the right).

Now we can look at some data from the model for the Earth. I found the data we need on this website: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/ttgraph.php and saved it in Datasets/TravelTimeDelta/DeltaTime.txt

Let's take a look at the contents of the file. Here we need to learn another Unix command, head (remember that we should pre-pend a ! to run it in the notebook). The command head prints out the first 10 lines in a file.

In :
!head Datasets/TravelTimeDelta/DeltaTime.txt

https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/ttgraph.php
Delta Time of P  S-P Time
Deg   M   S     M   S
0.0   0   5.4   0   4.0
0.5   0  10.6   0   7.8
1.0   0  17.7   0  13.5
1.5   0  24.6   0  19.0
2.0   0  31.4   0  24.4
2.5   0  38.3   0  29.9
3.0   0  45.2   0  35.4


While we are at it, we can look at the last 10 lines with tail.

In :
!tail Datasets/TravelTimeDelta/DeltaTime.txt

 96.0  13  23.6  11  16.1
97.0  13  28.1  11  20.1
98.0  13  32.6  11  24.1
99.0  13  37.0  11  28.1
100.0  13  41.5  11  32.0
101.0  13  45.9  11  35.8
102.0  13  50.4  11  39.7
103.0  13  54.8  11  43.6
104.0  13  59.2  11  47.5
105.0  14   3.7  11  51.4


The first line in our dataset contains WORDS, so we can't read it in with np.loadtxt. One strategy to remove the text would be to edit the text file, but instead let's up our game and use the wonderful Pandas package - a useful recent addition to Python.

### The Joy of Pandas¶

Pandas is a relatively new package for Python. It allows us to read in more complicated data file formats than NumPy, and wrangle the data in powerful ways. It also provides many useful data analysis tools.

There are two basic data structures in Pandas, the DataFrame, which is basically a spreadsheet with multiple columns and the Series which is a single column of data. A Series is like a list on steroids.

The DeltaTime file includes the website where I got the original data at the top of the file, a description in line 2 of what the data are about in general, and then some column headers in line 3. This kind of file does not play nicely with np.loadtxt( ), but we can use the Pandas function, read_csv( ) to read in the datafile. This function not only reads in 'comma separated variable' files (.csv), but also other data formats once we tell it how the file is delimited.

Of course we must first import Pandas into the notebook:

In :
import pandas as pd


A few things you need to let Pandas know.

• We need to skip the first two rows. We use the keyword argument skiprows=2 to do that.
• pd.read_csv( ) reads 'comma separated variables' by default but this file is whitespace delimited. whitespace is either spaces or tabs. The keyword argument delim_whitespace=True will split on white space.
• the header is in the third row; this is the row with the column names in it. Python starts counting from zero, but we skipped two rows, so header=0 will read in the first row after the skipped rows as the header.
• fun fact: with skiprows we don't need the header statement, but you need to know what it is. For example, you could use header=2 instead of skiprows. Why 2? because header starts with 0 as the default.
In :
DeltaTimeData=pd.read_csv('Datasets/TravelTimeDelta/DeltaTime.txt',\
# we specify the path of the file (relative to our current directory),
# then all the other arguments.

Out:
Deg M S M.1 S.1
0 0.0 0 5.4 0 4.0
1 0.5 0 10.6 0 7.8
2 1.0 0 17.7 0 13.5
3 1.5 0 24.6 0 19.0
4 2.0 0 31.4 0 24.4

DeltaTimeData is now a Pandas DataFrame.

So what is a DataFrame? It is a new data structure that is more sophisticated than any we have learned about so far (lists, tuples, sets, dictionaries, arrays).
It has named columns (like an Excel spreadsheet) and identifies the rows by indices starting with 0.

The file we read in included column headers and Pandas knows which line they were in (with the header or skiprows arguments).

If we want to be sure, we can use the DataFrame.columns attribute on the DeltaTimeData DataFrame:

In :
DeltaTimeData.columns

Out:
Index(['Deg', 'M', 'S', 'M.1', 'S.1'], dtype='object')

Notice that a DataFrame is of type object, similar to one of the NumPy array types that mixed data types we briefly encountered before. Let's explore these objects with Pandas DataFrames.

We see that the columns of DeltaTimeData are:

• "Deg": the degrees away from the source (the angle from the center of the Earth)
• "M": the time of the P wave arrival in minutes
• "S": the P wave arrival in seconds
• "M.1": the difference in the P and S wave arrival time in minutes and
• "S.1" is same interval in seconds.

Each one of these columns is a Pandas Series. So, DataFrames are like Excel spreadsheets and Series are one column of the spreadsheet.

If we like (and I do), we can change the column names by setting DataFrame.columns to a list with the new (more meaningful) column names:

In :
DeltaTimeData.columns=['Degrees','P_wave_minutes',\
'P_wave_seconds','S-P_minutes','S-P_seconds']

Out:
Degrees P_wave_minutes P_wave_seconds S-P_minutes S-P_seconds
0 0.0 0 5.4 0 4.0
1 0.5 0 10.6 0 7.8
2 1.0 0 17.7 0 13.5
3 1.5 0 24.6 0 19.0
4 2.0 0 31.4 0 24.4

To save a DataFrame to a file, we use the to_csv method:

In :
DeltaTimeData.to_csv('PSArrival.csv', index=False)


Without the argument index=False, there is an annoying extra column with all the DataFrame's index numbers, with index set to False, these do not appear. You can check it out with excel or something.

Also, there are many other file formats besides 'comma separated variable' (.csv) which can be saved using the sep argument. sep stands for "separator". For example, sep='\t' makes it a tab delimited (separated) file:

In :
DeltaTimeData.to_csv('PSArrival.txt',sep='\t', index=False)


### Back to the science¶

What we really want for our "science" problem is the arrival time in decimal minutes, not minutes and seconds as in this data file. We can do this by defining a new column ("P_min"), converting the seconds data to decimal minutes (by dividing by 60) and add that to the minutes:

In :
DeltaTimeData['P_decimal_minutes']=DeltaTimeData['P_wave_minutes']\
+DeltaTimeData['P_wave_seconds']/60.

Out:
Degrees P_wave_minutes P_wave_seconds S-P_minutes S-P_seconds P_decimal_minutes
0 0.0 0 5.4 0 4.0 0.090000
1 0.5 0 10.6 0 7.8 0.176667
2 1.0 0 17.7 0 13.5 0.295000
3 1.5 0 24.6 0 19.0 0.410000
4 2.0 0 31.4 0 24.4 0.523333

Notice how we have a new column which is the decimal minutes after the Earthquake that the P wave arrived at that angular distance (Deg).

In :
DeltaTimeData.columns

Out:
Index(['Degrees', 'P_wave_minutes', 'P_wave_seconds', 'S-P_minutes',
'S-P_seconds', 'P_decimal_minutes'],
dtype='object')

We would also like the time of S wave arrival, rather than the time between the S and P wave arrivals

In :
DeltaTimeData['SP_decimal_minutes']=DeltaTimeData['S-P_minutes']+\
DeltaTimeData['S-P_seconds']/60. # convert delay time to decimal minutes
DeltaTimeData['S_decimal_minutes']=DeltaTimeData['P_decimal_minutes']+\
DeltaTimeData['SP_decimal_minutes'] # calculate S wave arrival time in minutes

Out:
Degrees P_wave_minutes P_wave_seconds S-P_minutes S-P_seconds P_decimal_minutes SP_decimal_minutes S_decimal_minutes
0 0.0 0 5.4 0 4.0 0.090000 0.066667 0.156667
1 0.5 0 10.6 0 7.8 0.176667 0.130000 0.306667
2 1.0 0 17.7 0 13.5 0.295000 0.225000 0.520000
3 1.5 0 24.6 0 19.0 0.410000 0.316667 0.726667
4 2.0 0 31.4 0 24.4 0.523333 0.406667 0.930000

OK. Now we are ready to make a plot of our travel time and angular distances (just like in the movie!)

In :
plt.plot(DeltaTimeData.Degrees,DeltaTimeData.P_decimal_minutes,'r-',label='P waves',linewidth=2)
# plots the P wave arrival as red  lines
# notice the linewidth=2? that makes the line heavier.
plt.plot(DeltaTimeData.Degrees,DeltaTimeData.S_decimal_minutes,'b-',label='S waves')
# plots the S wave arrival as blue lines
plt.xlabel('Distance (degrees)') # labels the x axis
plt.ylabel('Time (minutes)'); # labels the y axis
plt.legend(loc=2); # location 2 is in the upper left hand corner Or we could plot the data as squares and triangles

In :
plt.plot(DeltaTimeData.Degrees,DeltaTimeData.P_decimal_minutes,'r^',label='P waves')
# plots the P wave arrival as red  triangles (^)
plt.plot(DeltaTimeData.Degrees,DeltaTimeData.S_decimal_minutes,'bs',label='S waves')
# plots the S wave arrival as blue squares (s)
plt.xlabel('Distance (degrees)') # labels the x axis
plt.ylabel('Time (minutes)'); # labels the y axis
plt.legend(loc=2); # location 2 is in the upper left hand corner Now we have two different symbols, red triangles and blue squares. We used the label argument to label the symbol types and then use the plt.legend( ) method to place the legend onto the figure.

In the next lecture, we'll use this on real P and S wave arrival data. We will calulate the time delay between the P and S wave arrival, find that time delay in our DeltaTimeData DataFrame, find the corresponding angular distance, and then calculate the actual great circle between the two points to help find the location of the source. So stay tuned. :)

Before we go, let's leave a nice data file to work on. We can make a DataFrame of our earthquake data called EQ.

In :
EQ=pd.DataFrame([minutes,velocity])

Out:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 25190 25191 25192 25193 25194 25195 25196 25197 25198 25199
0 0.0 0.000833 0.001667 0.0025 0.003333 0.004167 0.005 0.005833 0.006667 0.0075 ... 20.991667 20.9925 20.993333 20.994167 20.995 20.995833 20.996667 20.9975 20.998333 20.999167
1 1807.0 1749.000000 1694.000000 1618.0000 1516.000000 1394.000000 1282.000 1198.000000 1077.000000 957.0000 ... -9275.000000 -10063.0000 -10806.000000 -11515.000000 -12214.000 -12915.000000 -13599.000000 -14264.0000 -14888.000000 -15489.000000

2 rows × 25200 columns

Hmmm, that doesn't look like what we really need. First, there are only two rows (minutes and velocity) and we want two columns, not two rows. To do that, we can transpose the DataFrame, just like a NumPy array:

In :
EQ=pd.DataFrame([minutes,velocity]).transpose()

Out:
0 1
0 0.000000 1807.0
1 0.000833 1749.0
2 0.001667 1694.0
3 0.002500 1618.0
4 0.003333 1516.0

That is better, but we would really like column headers with names, not numbers so we change the column headers with the column attribute (as before).

In :
EQ.columns=['Minutes','Velocity']

Out:
Minutes Velocity
0 0.000000 1807.0
1 0.000833 1749.0
2 0.001667 1694.0
3 0.002500 1618.0
4 0.003333 1516.0

And we now we can save our DataFrames as a file.

In :
EQ.to_csv('minutes_velocity.csv',index=None)
DeltaTimeData.to_csv('DeltaTimeData.csv',index=None)
# by setting index to None, we don't have the indices as a column in the datafile.


Now we can safely leave this project until later.

### Assignment #3¶

In :
# cleanup
!rm seismogram.png
!rm PSArrival.*
# notice the * is a wildcard
# this command will delete anything that starts with PSArrival.
!rm minutes_velocity.csv # I already put this into Lecture 9 so don't worry.