# Pick the right hashtag¶

Social media has fundamentally changed the way in which we interact with each other, and with the world wide web. Our web activities are now inherently social. We can keep in touch with close friends on facebook without ever needing to pick up a phone or get on a train. We can use twitter to share our thoughts with the world, and we can explore someone else's by scrolling through pinterest boards, but at the same time the social web is diffuse, sprawling and unorganized. Hashtags represent one way to help keep the social web together and somewhat organized.

In general, hashtags are simple phrases or words that are preceded by a pound sign (#), and they serve the purpose of tagging a picture, post or message as being related to a specific or popular topic. They help broadcast information in a way that puts it within reach of a wider audience, and, if used correctly, they can help grow our digital social circles. But how should I pick the best hashtag? The best hashtags are the ones that are most relevant to the post and the ones that will reach largest number of viewers. In this post, we explore one way to pick the 'best' hashtag(s) for your tweets, using python and a little network analysis.

To start, lets think about sending out a tweet about a really cool new data science article. I could just use the #datascience hashtag, but lets take a closer look at what the available options are. To do that, we will use a weeks worth of data science related tweets that were collected for a previous post, and visualize hashtag frequency using wordcloud, a very nice python library for plotting word clouds.

First, let's load in our tweets and extract hashtags from all of the postings.

In [1]:
import sys
import warnings
import json
import dateutil
import datetime
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from os import path
from datetime import timedelta

def get_tags(text):
'''Return unique lists of hashtags from twitter text, by splitting text
tags = list( set(tag for tag in text.split() if tag.startswith('#')) )
to_remove="\$:;,.?!/\\*%@#"
return map(lambda x: ''.join( c for c in x if  c not in to_remove ),tags)

tags = []
verbose=False
if i=="\n":
next
else:
try:
data = json.JSONDecoder().raw_decode(i)
hash = list(data)[0]
text = hash["text"].rstrip('\n\r') # remove newline characters
clean_text = text.encode("ascii","ignore") # removes unicode
date = dateutil.parser.parse(hash["created_at"])
tags.append([map(lambda x:x.upper(),get_tags(clean_text)),date]) # make hashtags uppercase to avoid case-senstive duplications
except:
if verbose==True: print "No useable data on this line:", hash
continue

tags.sort(key=lambda l_t: l_t[1]) # make sure the data are date sorted, otherwise searching will be not be fast

tags_df = pd.DataFrame(tags)
tags_df.columns = ['text', 'date']
tags_df = tags_df.set_index('date')

In [2]:
def flatten(x):
return [item for sublist in x for item in sublist]

tag_text = flatten(tags_df["text"].values.tolist())


Once the tweets have been loaded and hashtags extracted, let's go ahead and plot them using wordcloud. The wordcloud library gives the user the option to define custom coloring functions, and it allows the use of custom images for image masking and plotting. For this example, I will make a function to randomly select one of three red colors and use a web-image of a cartoon brain as an image mask.

In [3]:
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import random
from wordcloud import WordCloud, STOPWORDS, ImageColorGenerator

def red_col(word, font_size, position, orientation, random_state=None, **kwargs):
return random.choice(['hsl(49, 100%, 81%)', 'hsl(34, 99%, 65%)', 'hsl(8, 87%, 53%)'])

wordcloud = wc.generate(" ".join(tag_text))
plt.figure(figsize=(16,16))
plt.imshow(wc.recolor(color_func=red_col))
plt.axis("off")

Out[3]:
(-0.5, 1999.5, 1999.5, -0.5)

The size of the text is a proxy for its frequency. As we can see, there are a large number of hashtags in data science related tweets, but "BIGDATA", "ANALYTIC" and "DATASCIENCE" stand out as being most popular. However, there are several other popular hashtags used over the course of the week. Let's take a look at the top 10 based on number of occurrence.

In [4]:
total_word_count=[]
for i in set(tag_text):
total_word_count.append((i,tag_text.count(i)))

In [5]:
number = 10
top_all = dict(sorted(total_word_count, key=lambda x: x[1])[-number:])

for i in top_all.keys():
print "The %s hashtag was seen about %d times" % (i,top_all[i])

The MACHINELEARNING hashtag was seen about 15211 times
The DATASECURITY hashtag was seen about 2673 times
The AI hashtag was seen about 3461 times
The IOT hashtag was seen about 13503 times
The BIGDATA hashtag was seen about 115575 times
The ANALYTICS hashtag was seen about 16333 times
The SECURITY hashtag was seen about 3518 times
The DATA hashtag was seen about 5681 times
The DATASCIENCE hashtag was seen about 24589 times
The CLOUD hashtag was seen about 3645 times


The "BIGDATA" hashtag was seen over 100,000 times. Impressive. Should I simply pick a random sampling from the top 10 hashtags and be on my way? It might not be a terrible strategy, but there is a better one. Twitter is a highly dynamic platform where the top hashtag(s) can change within the hour and even from minute to minute. As a simple exploration of this notion, let's break our weeks worth of tweets into hour increments and plot the rank of the top 10 hashtags relative to each other.

The result, of course, will be much simpler than what actually happens on twitter, as we will only see what happens to the weekly top 10 with respect to each other. We will not, for example, be able to see any hashtags that rise into the top 10 in each individual time period.

To start, we will iterate through each hour and look to see what the relative ranks among the weekly top 10 hashtags are.

In [6]:
def get_time_groups(df, sec):
'''Find groups of hashtags in 60 second windows.'''
time_now = datetime.datetime.now()
start = df.index.searchsorted(time_now - timedelta(seconds=sec))
end = df.index.searchsorted(time_now)
return df.ix[start:end]

In [7]:
top_rank = {}
for i in top_all.keys():
top_rank[i] = []

start = tags_df.index.searchsorted(datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(tags_df.ix[0:1].index.values.tolist()[0]/1e9))
end = 0

while end < len(tags_df.index):
end = tags_df.index.searchsorted(datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(
tags_df.ix[start:start+1].index.values.tolist()[0]/1e9) +
timedelta(seconds=3600))

new_df = tags_df.ix[start:end]
hash_list = flatten(new_df["text"].values.tolist())

hash_list_counts =  dict([(x,hash_list.count(x)) for x in set(hash_list)])
raw_counts = [(x,hash_list_counts[x]) if x in hash_list_counts.keys()
else (x,0) for x in top_rank.keys()]

ranks = zip(range(1,len(raw_counts)+1),sorted(raw_counts,key=lambda x: x[1])[::-1])

for i in ranks:
top_rank[i[1][0]].append(i[0])

start = end


After gathering the relative ranks for each hour, we will plot them using plotly.

In [8]:
import plotly
from plotly.graph_objs import *#Scatter, Layout

plotly.offline.init_notebook_mode()

def data_plot(rank_dict):
container = []

for i in rank_dict.keys():
ranks = rank_dict[i]
container.append(Scatter(x=range(1,len(ranks)),y=ranks,name=i))

layout= dict(
xaxis = dict(title = 'Hour'),
yaxis = dict(title = 'Relative Rank',autorange='reversed'),
legend=dict(
y=0.5,
font=dict(size=12)))

return (container,layout)

data,layout=data_plot(top_rank)
fig = Figure(data=data, layout=layout)
plotly.offline.iplot(fig)