# Quantile regression¶

### Standard regression¶

In this example we do quantile regression in CVXPY. We start by discussing standard regression. In a regression problem we are given data $(x_i,y_i)\in {\bf R}^n \times {\bf R}$, $i=1,\ldots, m$. and fit a linear (affine) model

$$\hat y_i = \beta ^Tx_i - v,$$

where $\beta \in {\bf R}^n$ and $v \in {\bf R}$.

The residuals are $r_i = \hat y_i - y_i$. In standard (least-squares) regression we choose $\beta,v$ to minimize $\|r\|_2^2 = \sum_i r_i^2$. For this choice of $\beta,v$ the mean of the optimal residuals is zero.

A simple variant is to add (Tychonov) regularization, meaning we solve the optimization problem

$$\begin{array}{ll} \mbox{minimize} & \|r\|_2^2 + \lambda \|\beta \|_2^2, \end{array}$$

where $\lambda>0$.

### Quantile regression¶

An alternative to the standard least-squares penalty is the tilted $\ell_1$ penalty: for $\tau \in (0,1)$,

$$\phi(u)= \tau (u)_+ + (1-\tau) (u)_- = (1/2)|u| + (\tau-1/2) u.$$

The plots below show $\phi(u)$ for $\tau= 0.5$, $\tau= 0.1$, and $\tau= 0.9$.

In quantile regression we choose $\beta,v$ to minimize $\sum_i \phi(r_i)$. For $r_i \neq 0$,

$$\frac{\partial \sum_i \phi(r_i)}{\partial v} = \tau \left|\{i: r_i>0\} \right| - (1-\tau) \left|\{i: r_i<0\}\right|,$$

which means that (roughly speaking) for optimal $v$ we have

$$\tau \left|\{i: r_i>0\} \right| = (1-\tau) \left|\{i: r_i<0\}\right|.$$

We conclude that $\tau m = \left|\{i: r_i<0\}\right|$, or the $\tau$-quantile of optimal residuals is zero. Hence the name quantile regression.

### Example¶

In the following code we apply quantile regression to a time series prediction problem. We fit the time series $x_t$, $t=0,1,2, \ldots$ with an auto-regressive (AR) predictor

$$\hat x_{t+1} = \beta^T (x_t,\ldots, x_{t-M})- v,$$

where $M=10$ is the memory of predictor.

We use quantile regression for $\tau = 0.1,0.5, 0.9$ to fit three AR models. At each time $t$, the models give three one-step-ahead predictions:

$$\hat x_{t+1} ^{0.1}, \qquad \hat x_{t+1} ^{0.5}, \qquad \hat x_{t+1} ^{0.9}$$

We divide the time series into a training set, which we use to fit the AR models, and a test set. We plot $x_t$ and the predictions $\hat x_{t+1} ^{0.1}$, $\hat x_{t+1} ^{0.5}$, $\hat x_{t+1} ^{0.9}$ for the training set and the test set.

In [1]:
# Generate data for quantile regression.
from __future__ import division
import numpy as np
np.random.seed(1)
TRAIN_LEN = 400
SKIP_LEN = 100
TEST_LEN = 50
TOTAL_LEN = TRAIN_LEN + SKIP_LEN + TEST_LEN
m = 10
x0 = np.random.randn(m)
x = np.zeros(TOTAL_LEN)
x[:m] = x0
for i in range(m+1, TOTAL_LEN):
x[i] = 1.8*x[i-1] - .82*x[i-2] + np.random.normal()

x = np.exp(.05*x + 0.05*np.random.normal(size=TOTAL_LEN))

In [2]:
# Form the quantile regression problem.
import cvxpy as cp

w = cp.Variable(m+1)
v = cp.Variable()
tau = cp.Parameter()
error = 0
for i in range(SKIP_LEN, TRAIN_LEN + SKIP_LEN):
r = x[i] - (w.T*x[i-m-1:i] + v)
error += 0.5*cp.abs(r) + (tau - 0.5)*r
prob = cp.Problem(cp.Minimize(error))

In [3]:
# Solve quantile regression for different values of tau.
tau_vals = [0.9, 0.5, 0.1]
pred = np.zeros((len(tau_vals), TOTAL_LEN))
r_vals = np.zeros((len(tau_vals), TOTAL_LEN))
for k, tau_val in enumerate(tau_vals):
tau.value = tau_val
prob.solve()
pred[k,:m] = x0
for i in range(SKIP_LEN, TOTAL_LEN):
pred[k,i] = (x[i-m-1:i].T*w + v).value
r_vals[k, i] = (x[i] - (x[i-m-1:i].T*w + v)).value


Below we plot the full time series, the training data with the three AR models, and the test data with the three AR models.

In [4]:
# Generate plots.
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'svg'

# Plot the full time series.
plt.plot(range(0, TRAIN_LEN + TEST_LEN), x[SKIP_LEN:],  'black', label=r'$x$')
plt.xlabel(r"$t$", fontsize=16)
plt.ylabel(r"$x_t$", fontsize=16)
plt.title('Full time series')
plt.show()

# Plot the predictions from the quantile regression on the training data.
plt.plot(range(0, TRAIN_LEN), x[SKIP_LEN:-TEST_LEN],  'black', label=r'$x$')
colors = ['r', 'g', 'b']
for k, tau_val in enumerate(tau_vals):
plt.plot(range(0, TRAIN_LEN), pred[k,SKIP_LEN:-TEST_LEN], colors[k],  label=r"$\tau = %.1f$" % tau_val)
plt.xlabel(r"$t$", fontsize=16)
plt.title('Training data')
plt.show()

# Plot the predictions from the quantile regression on the test data.
plt.plot(range(TRAIN_LEN,TRAIN_LEN+TEST_LEN), x[-TEST_LEN:],  'black', label=r'$x$')
for k, tau_val in enumerate(tau_vals):
plt.plot(range(TRAIN_LEN,TRAIN_LEN+TEST_LEN), pred[k,-TEST_LEN:], colors[k],  label=r"$\tau = %.1f$" % tau_val)
plt.xlabel(r"$t$", fontsize=16)
plt.title('Test data')
plt.show()


Below we plot the empirical CDFs of the residuals for the three AR models on the training data and the test data. Notice that $\tau$-quantile of the optimal residuals is close to zero.

In [5]:
# Plot the empirical CDFs of the residuals.

# Plot the CDF for the training data residuals.
for k, tau_val in enumerate(tau_vals):
sorted=np.sort(r_vals[k,SKIP_LEN:SKIP_LEN+TRAIN_LEN] )
yvals=np.arange(len(sorted))/float(len(sorted))
plt.plot( sorted, yvals, colors[k], label=r"$\tau = %.1f$" % tau_val)

x = np.linspace(-1.0, 1, 100)
for val in [0.1, 0.5, 0.9]:
plt.plot(x, len(x)*[val], 'k--')
plt.xlabel('Residual')
plt.ylabel('Cumulative density in training')
plt.xlim([-0.6, 0.6])
plt.legend(loc='upper left')
plt.show()

# Plot the CDF for the testing data residuals.
for k, tau_val in enumerate(tau_vals):
sorted=np.sort(r_vals[k,-TEST_LEN:] )
yvals=np.arange(len(sorted))/float(len(sorted))
plt.plot( sorted, yvals, colors[k], label=r"$\tau = %.1f$" % tau_val)

x = np.linspace(-1, 1, 100)
for val in [0.1, 0.5, 0.9]:
plt.plot(x, len(x)*[val], 'k--')
plt.xlabel('Residual')
plt.ylabel('Cumulative density in testing')
plt.xlim([-0.6, 0.6])
plt.legend(loc='upper left')
plt.show()