Text provided under a Creative Commons Attribution license, CC-BY. All code is made available under the FSF-approved BSD-3 license. (c) Lorena A. Barba, Gilbert F. Forsyth 2017. Thanks to NSF for support via CAREER award #1149784.
# 12 steps to Navier–Stokes¶

## Step 5: 2-D Linear Convection¶

### 3D Plotting Notes¶

##### Note¶

### Iterating in two dimensions¶

## Array Operations¶

## Learn More¶

Up to now, all of our work has been in one spatial dimension (Steps 1 to 4). We can learn a lot in just 1D, but let's grow up to flatland: two dimensions.

In the following exercises, you will extend the first four steps to 2D. To extend the 1D finite-difference formulas to partial derivatives in 2D or 3D, just apply the definition: a partial derivative with respect to $x$ is the variation in the $x$ direction *at constant* $y$.

In 2D space, a rectangular (uniform) grid is defined by the points with coordinates:

$$x_i = x_0 +i \Delta x$$$$y_i = y_0 +i \Delta y$$Now, define $u_{i,j} = u(x_i,y_j)$ and apply the finite-difference formulas on either variable $x,y$ *acting separately* on the $i$ and $j$ indices. All derivatives are based on the 2D Taylor expansion of a mesh point value around $u_{i,j}$.

Hence, for a first-order partial derivative in the $x$-direction, a finite-difference formula is:

$$ \frac{\partial u}{\partial x}\biggr\rvert_{i,j} = \frac{u_{i+1,j}-u_{i,j}}{\Delta x}+\mathcal{O}(\Delta x)$$and similarly in the $y$ direction. Thus, we can write backward-difference, forward-difference or central-difference formulas for Steps 5 to 12. Let's get started!

The PDE governing 2-D Linear Convection is written as

$$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}+c\frac{\partial u}{\partial x} + c\frac{\partial u}{\partial y} = 0$$This is the exact same form as with 1-D Linear Convection, except that we now have two spatial dimensions to account for as we step forward in time.

Again, the timestep will be discretized as a forward difference and both spatial steps will be discretized as backward differences.

With 1-D implementations, we used $i$ subscripts to denote movement in space (e.g. $u_{i}^n-u_{i-1}^n$). Now that we have two dimensions to account for, we need to add a second subscript, $j$, to account for all the information in the regime.

Here, we'll again use $i$ as the index for our $x$ values, and we'll add the $j$ subscript to track our $y$ values.

With that in mind, our discretization of the PDE should be relatively straightforward.

$$\frac{u_{i,j}^{n+1}-u_{i,j}^n}{\Delta t} + c\frac{u_{i, j}^n-u_{i-1,j}^n}{\Delta x} + c\frac{u_{i,j}^n-u_{i,j-1}^n}{\Delta y}=0$$As before, solve for the only unknown:

$$u_{i,j}^{n+1} = u_{i,j}^n-c \frac{\Delta t}{\Delta x}(u_{i,j}^n-u_{i-1,j}^n)-c \frac{\Delta t}{\Delta y}(u_{i,j}^n-u_{i,j-1}^n)$$We will solve this equation with the following initial conditions:

$$u(x,y) = \begin{cases} \begin{matrix} 2\ \text{for} & 0.5 \leq x, y \leq 1 \cr 1\ \text{for} & \text{everywhere else}\end{matrix}\end{cases}$$and boundary conditions:

$$u = 1\ \text{for } \begin{cases} \begin{matrix} x = 0,\ 2 \cr y = 0,\ 2 \end{matrix}\end{cases}$$In [1]:

```
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D ##New Library required for projected 3d plots
import numpy
from matplotlib import pyplot, cm
%matplotlib inline
###variable declarations
nx = 81
ny = 81
nt = 100
c = 1
dx = 2 / (nx - 1)
dy = 2 / (ny - 1)
sigma = .2
dt = sigma * dx
x = numpy.linspace(0, 2, nx)
y = numpy.linspace(0, 2, ny)
u = numpy.ones((ny, nx)) ##create a 1xn vector of 1's
un = numpy.ones((ny, nx)) ##
###Assign initial conditions
##set hat function I.C. : u(.5<=x<=1 && .5<=y<=1 ) is 2
u[int(.5 / dy):int(1 / dy + 1),int(.5 / dx):int(1 / dx + 1)] = 2
###Plot Initial Condition
##the figsize parameter can be used to produce different sized images
fig = pyplot.figure(figsize=(11, 7), dpi=100)
ax = fig.gca(projection='3d')
X, Y = numpy.meshgrid(x, y)
surf = ax.plot_surface(X, Y, u[:], cmap=cm.viridis)
```

To plot a projected 3D result, make sure that you have added the Axes3D library.

`from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D`

The actual plotting commands are a little more involved than with simple 2d plots.

```
fig = pyplot.figure(figsize=(11, 7), dpi=100)
ax = fig.gca(projection='3d')
surf2 = ax.plot_surface(X, Y, u[:])
```

The first line here is initializing a figure window. The **figsize** and **dpi** commands are optional and simply specify the size and resolution of the figure being produced. You may omit them, but you will still require the

```
fig = pyplot.figure()
```

The next line assigns the plot window the axes label 'ax' and also specifies that it will be a 3d projection plot. The final line uses the command

```
plot_surface()
```

which is equivalent to the regular plot command, but it takes a grid of X and Y values for the data point positions.

The `X`

and `Y`

values that you pass to `plot_surface`

are not the 1-D vectors `x`

and `y`

. In order to use matplotlibs 3D plotting functions, you need to generate a grid of `x, y`

values which correspond to each coordinate in the plotting frame. This coordinate grid is generated using the numpy function `meshgrid`

.

`X, Y = numpy.meshgrid(x, y)`

To evaluate the wave in two dimensions requires the use of several nested for-loops to cover all of the `i`

's and `j`

's. Since Python is not a compiled language there can be noticeable slowdowns in the execution of code with multiple for-loops. First try evaluating the 2D convection code and see what results it produces.

In [2]:

```
u = numpy.ones((ny, nx))
u[int(.5 / dy):int(1 / dy + 1), int(.5 / dx):int(1 / dx + 1)] = 2
for n in range(nt + 1): ##loop across number of time steps
un = u.copy()
row, col = u.shape
for j in range(1, row):
for i in range(1, col):
u[j, i] = (un[j, i] - (c * dt / dx * (un[j, i] - un[j, i - 1])) -
(c * dt / dy * (un[j, i] - un[j - 1, i])))
u[0, :] = 1
u[-1, :] = 1
u[:, 0] = 1
u[:, -1] = 1
fig = pyplot.figure(figsize=(11, 7), dpi=100)
ax = fig.gca(projection='3d')
surf2 = ax.plot_surface(X, Y, u[:], cmap=cm.viridis)
```

Here the same 2D convection code is implemented, but instead of using nested for-loops, the same calculations are evaluated using array operations.

In [3]:

```
u = numpy.ones((ny, nx))
u[int(.5 / dy):int(1 / dy + 1), int(.5 / dx):int(1 / dx + 1)] = 2
for n in range(nt + 1): ##loop across number of time steps
un = u.copy()
u[1:, 1:] = (un[1:, 1:] - (c * dt / dx * (un[1:, 1:] - un[1:, :-1])) -
(c * dt / dy * (un[1:, 1:] - un[:-1, 1:])))
u[0, :] = 1
u[-1, :] = 1
u[:, 0] = 1
u[:, -1] = 1
fig = pyplot.figure(figsize=(11, 7), dpi=100)
ax = fig.gca(projection='3d')
surf2 = ax.plot_surface(X, Y, u[:], cmap=cm.viridis)
```

The video lesson that walks you through the details for Step 5 (and onwards to Step 8) is **Video Lesson 6** on You Tube:

In [4]:

```
from IPython.display import YouTubeVideo
YouTubeVideo('tUg_dE3NXoY')
```

Out[4]:

In [5]:

```
from IPython.core.display import HTML
def css_styling():
styles = open("../styles/custom.css", "r").read()
return HTML(styles)
css_styling()
```

Out[5]:

(The cell above executes the style for this notebook.)