Approach to categorical variables

Categorical variables are the essence of many real-world tasks. Every business task you're will ever solve will include categorical variables. So it's better to have a good taste of them.

For demonstration purposes, I will use 2 models RF and Linear as they have different nature and would better highlight differences in category treating.

Dataset from kaggle medium competition, where we should predict a number of claps (likes) to the article.

In [38]:
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.metrics import mean_absolute_error
from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestRegressor
import feather
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.manifold import TSNE
from sklearn.decomposition import PCA
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import warnings
In [8]:
def add_date_parts(df, date_column= 'published'):
    df['hour'] = df[date_column].dt.hour
    df['month'] = df[date_column].dt.month
    df['weekday'] = df[date_column].dt.weekday
    df['year'] = df[date_column].dt.year
    df['week'] = df[date_column].dt.week
    df['working_day'] = (df['weekday'] < 5).astype('int')
In [12]:
PATH_TO_DATA = '../../data/medium/'
train_df =  feather.read_dataframe(PATH_TO_DATA +'medium_train')
train_df.set_index('id', inplace=True)
In [13]:
content published title author domain tags length url image_url lang log_recommends hour month weekday year week working_day
358381 Patricio Barríacronista del proyecto Supay Was... 2017-06-30 23:40:35.633 Salamancas, antepasados y espíritus guardianes... Patricio Barría Chile Etnografia ValleDeElqui Brujeria Postcol... 12590*e5C... SPANISH 3.09104 23 6 4 2017 26 1

The text is not the purpose of this tutorial, so I'll drop it

In [460]:
train_df = train_df[['author','domain','lang','log_recommends','hour','month','weekday','year','week','working_day']]
author domain lang log_recommends hour month weekday year week working_day
358381 Patricio Barría SPANISH 3.09104 23 6 4 2017 26 1

Basic approach LE.

LE (label encoding) is the most simple. We have some categories (country for example) ['Russia', 'USA', 'GB']. But algoritms do not work with strings, they need numbers. Ok, we can do it ['Russia', 'USA', 'GB'] -> [0, 1, 2]. Relly simple. Let's try.

In [33]:
autor_to_int = dict((zip(, range([0]))))
domain_to_int = dict((zip(train_df.domain.unique(), range(train_df.domain.unique().shape[0]))))
lang_to_int = dict((zip(train_df.lang.unique(), range(train_df.lang.unique().shape[0]))))
train_df_le = train_df.copy()
In [34]:
train_df_le['author'] = train_df_le['author'].apply(lambda aut: autor_to_int[aut])
train_df_le['domain'] = train_df_le['domain'].apply(lambda aut: domain_to_int[aut])
train_df_le['lang'] = train_df_le['lang'].apply(lambda aut: lang_to_int[aut])
author domain lang log_recommends hour month weekday year week working_day
358381 0 0 0 3.09104 23 6 4 2017 26 1
401900 1 0 1 1.09861 23 6 4 2017 26 1
146566 2 0 2 1.38629 23 6 4 2017 26 1
28970 3 0 3 2.77259 22 6 4 2017 26 1
102763 4 0 1 1.38629 22 6 4 2017 26 1
In [36]:
y = train_df_le.log_recommends
X = train_df_le.drop('log_recommends', axis=1)
author domain lang hour month weekday year week working_day
358381 0 0 0 23 6 4 2017 26 1

RF label encoded

In [43]:
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X,y, test_size=0.2)
rf = RandomForestRegressor(), y_train)
preds = rf.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

LR label encoded

Linear models like scaled input

In [46]:
scaler = StandardScaler()
X = scaler.fit_transform(X)
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X,y, test_size=0.2)
In [47]:
ridge = Ridge(), y_train)
preds = ridge.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

It seems linear model perform worse. Yes, it is, because of their nature. Linear model tries to find weight W that would be multiplied with input X, y = W*X + b. With LE we are telling to out model (with mapping ['Russia', 'USA', 'GB'] -> [0, 1, 2]), that weight in "Russia" doesn't matter because X==0, and that GB two times bigger than USA.

So it's not ok to use LE with linear models.

One-hot-encoding (OHE)

We can treat category as the thing on its own. ['Russia', 'USA', 'GB'] will convert to 3 features, each of which would take value 0 or 1.

This way we can treat features independently, but cardinality blows up.

In [71]:
train_df_ohe = train_df.copy()
y = train_df_ohe.log_recommends
X = train_df_ohe.drop('log_recommends', axis=1)
X[X.columns] = X[X.columns].astype('category')
X = pd.get_dummies(X, prefix=X.columns)
In [72]:
(62313, 31729)

Boom! It was 9 dimensions now it's 317k dimensions. (Yes, I treat day-year-week as a category)

RF ohe

In [74]:
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X,y, test_size=0.2)
rf = RandomForestRegressor(n_jobs=-1), y_train)
preds = rf.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

Score improved but learning time and memory consumption jumped drastically. (It was > 20Gb RAM)

LR ohe

In [75]:
ridge = Ridge(), y_train)
preds = ridge.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

Wow! Significant improvement.

Categorical embeddings

You already knew everything that was above.

Now it's time to try something new. We'll look at NN approach to categorical variables.

In kaggle competitions, we can see, that in competitions with heavy use of categorical data tree ensembling methods work the best (XGBoost). Why in ages of rising NN they still haven't conquered this area?
In principle a neural network can approximate any continuous function and piecewise continuous function. However, it is not suitable to approximate arbitrary non-continuous functions as it assumes a certain level of continuity in its general form. During the training phase the continuity of the data guarantees the convergence of the optimization, and during the prediction phase it ensures that slightly changing the values of the input keeps the output stable.
Trees don't have this assumption about data continuity and can divide the states of a variable as fine as necessary.

NN is somehow close to the linear model. What have we done to linear model? We used OHE, but it blew our dimensionality. For many real-world tasks when features may have cardinality about millions it would be harder. Secondly, we've lost some information with such a transformation. In our example, we have language as a feature. When we are converting "SPANISH" -> [1,0,0,...,0] and when "ENGLISH" -> [0,1,0,...,0]. Both languages have the same distance between each other, but there is no doubts Spanish and English are more similar than English and Chinese. We want to get this inner relation.

The solution to these problems is to use embeddings, which translate large sparse vectors into a lower-dimensional space that preserves semantic relationships.

How it works in NLP field:

feature vector
puppy [0.9, 1.0, 0.0]
dog [1.0, 0.2, 0.0]
kitten [0.0, 1.0, 0.9]
cat [0.0, 0.2, 1.0]

We see words share some values, that we can consider as "dogness" or "size".

To do this, all we need is the matrix of embeddings.

At the start, we are applying OHE and obtaining N rows with M columns. Where m is a category value. Then we picking row that encodes our category from the embedding matrix. Further we using this vector that repsents some rich properties of our initial category.
We can obtain embeddings with NN magic. We are training embedding matrix with the size of MxP where P is number which we are picking (hyperparameter). Google's heuristic says us to pick M**0.25

In [464]:
from IPython.display import Image

I'll use keras, but it's not important it's just a tool.

In [153]:
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import keras
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, BatchNormalization
from keras.layers import Input, Embedding, Dense, Dropout
from keras.models import Model
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
In [430]:
class EmbeddingMapping():
    Helper class for handling categorical variables
    An instance of this class should be defined for each categorical variable we want to use.
    def __init__(self, series):
        # get a list of unique values
        values = series.unique().tolist()
        # Set a dictionary mapping from values to integer value
        self.embedding_dict = {value: int_value+1 for int_value, value in enumerate(values)}
        # The num_values will be used as the input_dim when defining the embedding layer. 
        # It will also be returned for unseen values 
        self.num_values = len(values) + 1

    def get_mapping(self, value):
        # If the value was seen in the training set, return its integer mapping
        if value in self.embedding_dict:
            return self.embedding_dict[value]
        # Else, return the same integer for unseen values
            return self.num_values
In [439]:
#converting some out features
author_mapping = EmbeddingMapping(train_df['author'])
domain_mapping = EmbeddingMapping(train_df['domain'])
lang_mapping = EmbeddingMapping(train_df['lang'])
X_emb = X_emb.assign(author_mapping=X_emb['author'].apply(author_mapping.get_mapping))
X_emb = X_emb.assign(lang_mapping=X_emb['lang'].apply(lang_mapping.get_mapping))
X_emb = X_emb.assign(domain_mapping=X_emb['domain'].apply(domain_mapping.get_mapping))
In [441]:
author domain lang log_recommends hour month weekday year week working_day author_mapping lang_mapping domain_mapping
114160 Gautham Krishna ENGLISH 1.79176 19 7 0 2016 28 1 18582 4 1
In [ ]:
X_emb = train_df.copy()
In [435]:
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X_emb,y, test_size=0.2)
In [274]:
# Keras functional API
author_input = Input(shape=(1,), dtype='int32') 
lang_input = Input(shape=(1,), dtype='int32')
domain_input = Input(shape=(1,), dtype='int32')

# It's google's fule of thumb N_embeddings == N_originall_dim**0.25
# Let’s define the embedding layer and flatten it
# Originally 31331 unique authors
author_embedings = Embedding(output_dim=13, input_dim=author_mapping.num_values, input_length=1)(author_input)
author_embedings = keras.layers.Reshape((13,))(author_embedings)
# Originally 62 unique langs
lang_embedings = Embedding(output_dim=3, input_dim=lang_mapping.num_values, input_length=1)(lang_input)
lang_embedings = keras.layers.Reshape((3,))(lang_embedings)
# Originally 221 unique domains
domain_embedings = Embedding(output_dim=4, input_dim=domain_mapping.num_values, input_length=1)(domain_input)
domain_embedings = keras.layers.Reshape((4,))(domain_embedings)

# Concatenate continuous and embeddings inputs
all_input = keras.layers.concatenate([lang_embedings, author_embedings, domain_embedings])
In [475]:
# Fully connected layer to train NN and learn embeddings
dense1 = Dense(units=units, activation='relu')(all_input)
dense1 = Dropout(0.5)(dense1)
dense2 = Dense(units, activation='relu')(dense1)
dense2 = Dropout(0.5)(dense2)
predictions = Dense(1)(dense2)
In [443]:
epochs = 40
model = Model(inputs=[lang_input, author_input, domain_input], outputs=predictions)
model.compile(loss='mae', optimizer='adagrad')

history =[X_train['lang_mapping'], X_train['author_mapping'], X_train['domain_mapping']], y_train, 
          epochs=epochs, batch_size=128, verbose=0,
          validation_data=([X_val['lang_mapping'], X_val['author_mapping'], X_val['domain_mapping']], y_val))

At this step, we've trained a NN, but we are not going to use it. We want to get the embeddings layer.

For each category, we have distinct embedding. Let's extract them and use it in our simple models.

In [461]:
[<keras.engine.input_layer.InputLayer at 0x7f1cce0883c8>,
 <keras.engine.input_layer.InputLayer at 0x7f1cce088358>,
 <keras.engine.input_layer.InputLayer at 0x7f1cce088470>,
 <keras.layers.embeddings.Embedding at 0x7f1cce0886a0>,
 <keras.layers.embeddings.Embedding at 0x7f1cce088320>,
 <keras.layers.embeddings.Embedding at 0x7f1cce088518>,
 <keras.layers.core.Reshape at 0x7f1cce088588>,
 <keras.layers.core.Reshape at 0x7f1cce0884a8>,
 <keras.layers.core.Reshape at 0x7f1cce088438>,
 <keras.layers.merge.Concatenate at 0x7f1cce088630>,
 <keras.layers.core.Dense at 0x7f200c1f2f60>,
 <keras.layers.core.Dropout at 0x7f1ca6e93160>,
 <keras.layers.core.Dense at 0x7f1ca6e93048>,
 <keras.layers.core.Dropout at 0x7f1ca6e93f60>,
 <keras.layers.core.Dense at 0x7f1ca6e93f28>]
In [444]:
(222, 4)
In [445]:
lang_embedding = model.layers[3].get_weights()[0]
lang_emb_cols = [f'lang_emb_{i}' for i in range(lang_embedding.shape[1])]
In [446]:
author_embedding = model.layers[4].get_weights()[0]
aut_emb_cols = [f'aut_emb_{i}' for i in range(author_embedding.shape[1])]
In [447]:
domain_embedding = model.layers[5].get_weights()[0]
dom_emb_cols = [f'dom_emb_{i}' for i in range(domain_embedding.shape[1])]

Now we have embeddings, and all we need is to take a row that corresponds to our examples.

In [448]:
def get_author_vector(aut_num):
    return author_embedding[aut_num,:]
def get_lang_vector(lang_num):
    return lang_embedding[lang_num,:]
def get_domain_vector(dom_num):
    return domain_embedding[dom_num,:]
In [449]:
array([-0.01509277, -0.03493742, -0.04596788], dtype=float32)
In [450]:
lang_emb = pd.DataFrame(X_emb['lang_mapping'].apply(get_lang_vector).values.tolist(), columns=lang_emb_cols)
lang_emb.index = X_emb.index
X_emb[lang_emb_cols] = lang_emb
In [451]:
aut_emb = pd.DataFrame(X_emb['author_mapping'].apply(get_author_vector).values.tolist(), columns=aut_emb_cols)
aut_emb.index = X_emb.index
X_emb[aut_emb_cols] = aut_emb
In [452]:
dom_emb = pd.DataFrame(X_emb['domain_mapping'].apply(get_domain_vector).values.tolist(), columns=dom_emb_cols)
dom_emb.index = X_emb.index
X_emb[dom_emb_cols] = dom_emb
In [453]:
X_emb.drop(['author', 'lang', 'domain', 'log_recommends',
           'author_mapping', 'lang_mapping', 'domain_mapping',],axis=1, inplace=True)
In [454]:
Index(['hour', 'month', 'weekday', 'year', 'week', 'working_day', 'lang_emb_0',
       'lang_emb_1', 'lang_emb_2', 'aut_emb_0', 'aut_emb_1', 'aut_emb_2',
       'aut_emb_3', 'aut_emb_4', 'aut_emb_5', 'aut_emb_6', 'aut_emb_7',
       'aut_emb_8', 'aut_emb_9', 'aut_emb_10', 'aut_emb_11', 'aut_emb_12',
       'dom_emb_0', 'dom_emb_1', 'dom_emb_2', 'dom_emb_3'],
In [455]:
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X_emb,y, test_size=0.2)
In [456]:
rf = RandomForestRegressor(n_jobs=-1), y_train)
preds = rf.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)
In [458]:
ridge = Ridge(), y_train)
preds = ridge.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

It seems like a success.

One nice property of embeddings - our categories have some simularity(distance) from each other. Let's look at the graph.

In [526]:
import bokeh.models as bm, bokeh.plotting as pl
from import output_notebook

def draw_vectors(x, y, radius=10, alpha=0.25, color='blue',
                 width=600, height=400, show=True, **kwargs):
    """ draws an interactive plot for data points with auxilirary info on hover """
    if isinstance(color, str): color = [color] * len(x)
    data_source = bm.ColumnDataSource({ 'x' : x, 'y' : y, 'color': color, **kwargs })

    fig = pl.figure(active_scroll='wheel_zoom', width=width, height=height)
    fig.scatter('x', 'y', size=radius, color='color', alpha=alpha, source=data_source)

    fig.add_tools(bm.HoverTool(tooltips=[(key, "@" + key) for key in kwargs.keys()]))
    if show:
    return fig
Loading BokehJS ...
In [503]:
langs_vectors = [get_lang_vector(l) for l in lang_mapping.embedding_dict.values()]
In [504]:
lang_tsne = TSNE().fit_transform(langs_vectors )
In [505]:
draw_vectors(lang_tsne[:, 0], lang_tsne[:, 1], token=list(lang_mapping.embedding_dict.keys()))
id = '1638', …)
In [518]:
langs_vectors_pca = PCA(n_components=2).fit_transform(langs_vectors)
In [519]:
draw_vectors(langs_vectors_pca[:, 0], langs_vectors_pca[:, 1], token=list(lang_mapping.embedding_dict.keys()))
id = '2308', …)

This time graphs doesn't look any meaningfull, but score speaks for itself.


Another approach came from NLP is word2Vec that was renamed to Cat2Vec. It haven't firm confirmation about it's usefulness, but there are some papers that argue that. (Links below).

Distributional semantics and John Rupert Firth says "You shall know a word by the company it keeps". Some words share the same context, so they are somehow similar. We can suggest, that categories may share some inner correlation by they co-occurrence. For example weather and city. Maybe city "Philadelphia" may be similar to weather "always sunny", or "Moskow" with "snowy".

Firstly we applying Feature encoding, then we can make "sentence" from our row.

In the example below, let's imagine we have an article at "Monday January 2018 English_language" Here our sentence so maybe if English co-occurs with Medium more often then Chinese with (Poor consideration but just for example).

The only consideration is "word" order. Word2Vec relays on order, fro categorical "sentence" it doesn't matter, so it's better to shuffle sentences.

Let's implement it.

In [417]:
X_w2v = train_df.copy()
In [418]:
month_int_to_name = {1:'jan',2:'feb',3:'apr',4:'march',5:'may',6:'june',7:'jul',8:'aug',9:'sept',10:'okt',11:'nov',12:'dec',}
weekday_int_to_day = {0:'mon',1:'thus',2:'wen',3:'thusd',4:'fri',5:'sut',6:'sun',}
In [419]:
working_day_int_to_day = {1: 'work',0:'not_work'}
In [420]:
X_w2v.month = X_w2v.month.apply(lambda x : month_int_to_name[x])
In [421]:
X_w2v.weekday = X_w2v.weekday.apply(lambda x : weekday_int_to_day[x])
In [422]:
X_w2v.working_day = X_w2v.working_day.apply(lambda x : working_day_int_to_day[x])
In [371]:
all_list = list()
for ind, r in X_w2v.iterrows():
    values_list = [str(val).replace(' ', '_') for val in r.values]
In [523]:
from gensim.models import Word2Vec
model = Word2Vec(all_list, 
                 size=32,      # embedding vector size
                 min_count=5,  # consider words that occured at least 5 times
In [525]:
[('may', 0.9750568866729736),
 ('jan', 0.9696922302246094),
 ('apr', 0.9657937288284302),
 ('feb', 0.9636536240577698),
 ('march', 0.9605866074562073),
 ('jul', 0.8678117990493774),
 ('aug', 0.842918872833252),
 ('sept', 0.8228173851966858),
 ('okt', 0.7803250551223755),
 ('nov', 0.77550208568573)]
In [378]:
words = sorted(model.vocab.keys(), 
               key=lambda word: model.vocab[word].count,

['', 'Carlos_E._Perez', 'Regalos_bodas,_bautizos,_comuniones', 'Ploum', 'Ash_Rust', 'Leandro_Demori', 'Dave_Mckenna', 'Steve_Krakauer', 'Raul_Kuk', 'Carolina_Lacerda']
In [379]:
word_vectors = np.array([model.get_vector(wrd) for wrd in words])

Draw a graph as usual

In [529]:
word_tsne = TSNE().fit_transform(word_vectors )
In [383]:
draw_vectors(word_tsne[:, 0], word_tsne[:, 1], color='green', token=words)
id = '1003', …)

Our categories mingled, but we can notice that years, days, languages are stays apart from authors cloud.

In [386]:
def get_phrase_embedding(phrase):
    Convert phrase to a vector by aggregating it's word embeddings. See description above.
    # 1. lowercase phrase
    # 2. tokenize phrase
    # 3. average word vectors for all words in tokenized phrase
    # skip words that are not in model's vocabulary
    # if all words are missing from vocabulary, return zeros
    vector = np.zeros([model.vector_size], dtype='float32')
    word_count = 0
    for word in phrase.split():
        if word in model.vocab:
            vector += model.get_vector(word)
            word_count += 1
    if word_count:
        vector /= word_count
    return vector
In [423]:
new_features = list()
for ph in all_list:
    vector = get_phrase_embedding(' '.join(ph))
In [424]:
new_features = pd.DataFrame(new_features)
new_features.index = X_w2v.index
X_w2v = pd.concat([X_w2v,new_features],axis=1
In [425]:
X_w2v.drop(['author','domain','lang','working_day','year','month','weekday','log_recommends'], axis=1, inplace = True)
In [426]:
X_train, X_val,y_train,y_val = train_test_split(X_w2v,y, test_size=0.2)
In [428]:
rf = RandomForestRegressor(n_jobs=-1), y_train)
preds = rf.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)
In [429]:
ridge = Ridge(), y_train)
preds = ridge.predict(X_val)
mean_absolute_error(y_val, preds)

Poor result, but I cutted a lot of features that could help this algorithm to word.


Now you know that categorical variables it is a tricky beast and that we can get a lot of it by embeddings and cat2Vec technics. They work not only for NN but in simpler models, so it is possible to use it in production low-latency systems. ITEM2VEC: NEURAL ITEM EMBEDDING FOR COLLABORATIVE FILTERING CAT2VEC: LEARNING DISTRIBUTED REPRESENTATION OF MULTI-FIELD CATEGORICAL DATA Entity Embeddings of Categorical Variables Embeddings