In [1]:
library(MASS)
library(ISLR)
### Simple linear regression
names(Boston)
plot(medv~lstat,Boston)
  1. 'crim'
  2. 'zn'
  3. 'indus'
  4. 'chas'
  5. 'nox'
  6. 'rm'
  7. 'age'
  8. 'dis'
  9. 'rad'
  10. 'tax'
  11. 'ptratio'
  12. 'black'
  13. 'lstat'
  14. 'medv'
In [2]:
fit1=lm(medv~lstat,data=Boston)
fit1
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ lstat, data = Boston)

Coefficients:
(Intercept)        lstat  
      34.55        -0.95  
In [3]:
summary(fit1)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ lstat, data = Boston)

Residuals:
    Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
-15.168  -3.990  -1.318   2.034  24.500 

Coefficients:
            Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept) 34.55384    0.56263   61.41   <2e-16 ***
lstat       -0.95005    0.03873  -24.53   <2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 6.216 on 504 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.5441,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.5432 
F-statistic: 601.6 on 1 and 504 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [4]:
abline(fit1,col="red")
Error in int_abline(a = a, b = b, h = h, v = v, untf = untf, ...): plot.new has not been called yet
Traceback:

1. abline(fit1, col = "red")
2. int_abline(a = a, b = b, h = h, v = v, untf = untf, ...)
In [5]:
names(fit1)
  1. 'coefficients'
  2. 'residuals'
  3. 'effects'
  4. 'rank'
  5. 'fitted.values'
  6. 'assign'
  7. 'qr'
  8. 'df.residual'
  9. 'xlevels'
  10. 'call'
  11. 'terms'
  12. 'model'
In [6]:
confint(fit1)
2.5 %97.5 %
(Intercept)33.4484635.65922
lstat-1.0261482-0.8739505
In [7]:
predict(fit1,data.frame(lstat=c(5,10,15)),interval="confidence")
fitlwrupr
129.8035929.0074130.59978
225.0533524.4741325.63256
320.3031019.7315920.87461
In [8]:
### Multiple linear regression
fit2=lm(medv~lstat+age,data=Boston)
summary(fit2)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ lstat + age, data = Boston)

Residuals:
    Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
-15.981  -3.978  -1.283   1.968  23.158 

Coefficients:
            Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept) 33.22276    0.73085  45.458  < 2e-16 ***
lstat       -1.03207    0.04819 -21.416  < 2e-16 ***
age          0.03454    0.01223   2.826  0.00491 ** 
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 6.173 on 503 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.5513,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.5495 
F-statistic:   309 on 2 and 503 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [9]:
fit3=lm(medv~.,Boston)
summary(fit3)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ ., data = Boston)

Residuals:
    Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
-15.595  -2.730  -0.518   1.777  26.199 

Coefficients:
              Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept)  3.646e+01  5.103e+00   7.144 3.28e-12 ***
crim        -1.080e-01  3.286e-02  -3.287 0.001087 ** 
zn           4.642e-02  1.373e-02   3.382 0.000778 ***
indus        2.056e-02  6.150e-02   0.334 0.738288    
chas         2.687e+00  8.616e-01   3.118 0.001925 ** 
nox         -1.777e+01  3.820e+00  -4.651 4.25e-06 ***
rm           3.810e+00  4.179e-01   9.116  < 2e-16 ***
age          6.922e-04  1.321e-02   0.052 0.958229    
dis         -1.476e+00  1.995e-01  -7.398 6.01e-13 ***
rad          3.060e-01  6.635e-02   4.613 5.07e-06 ***
tax         -1.233e-02  3.760e-03  -3.280 0.001112 ** 
ptratio     -9.527e-01  1.308e-01  -7.283 1.31e-12 ***
black        9.312e-03  2.686e-03   3.467 0.000573 ***
lstat       -5.248e-01  5.072e-02 -10.347  < 2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 4.745 on 492 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.7406,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.7338 
F-statistic: 108.1 on 13 and 492 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [10]:
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
plot(fit3)
fit4=update(fit3,~.-age-indus)
summary(fit4)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ crim + zn + chas + nox + rm + dis + rad + 
    tax + ptratio + black + lstat, data = Boston)

Residuals:
     Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max 
-15.5984  -2.7386  -0.5046   1.7273  26.2373 

Coefficients:
              Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept)  36.341145   5.067492   7.171 2.73e-12 ***
crim         -0.108413   0.032779  -3.307 0.001010 ** 
zn            0.045845   0.013523   3.390 0.000754 ***
chas          2.718716   0.854240   3.183 0.001551 ** 
nox         -17.376023   3.535243  -4.915 1.21e-06 ***
rm            3.801579   0.406316   9.356  < 2e-16 ***
dis          -1.492711   0.185731  -8.037 6.84e-15 ***
rad           0.299608   0.063402   4.726 3.00e-06 ***
tax          -0.011778   0.003372  -3.493 0.000521 ***
ptratio      -0.946525   0.129066  -7.334 9.24e-13 ***
black         0.009291   0.002674   3.475 0.000557 ***
lstat        -0.522553   0.047424 -11.019  < 2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 4.736 on 494 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.7406,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.7348 
F-statistic: 128.2 on 11 and 494 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [11]:
### Nonlinear terms and Interactions
fit5=lm(medv~lstat*age,Boston)
summary(fit5)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ lstat * age, data = Boston)

Residuals:
    Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
-15.806  -4.045  -1.333   2.085  27.552 

Coefficients:
              Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept) 36.0885359  1.4698355  24.553  < 2e-16 ***
lstat       -1.3921168  0.1674555  -8.313 8.78e-16 ***
age         -0.0007209  0.0198792  -0.036   0.9711    
lstat:age    0.0041560  0.0018518   2.244   0.0252 *  
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 6.149 on 502 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.5557,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.5531 
F-statistic: 209.3 on 3 and 502 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [12]:
fit6=lm(medv~lstat +I(lstat^2),Boston); summary(fit6)
attach(Boston)
par(mfrow=c(1,1))
plot(medv~lstat)
points(lstat,fitted(fit6),col="red",pch=20)
Call:
lm(formula = medv ~ lstat + I(lstat^2), data = Boston)

Residuals:
     Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max 
-15.2834  -3.8313  -0.5295   2.3095  25.4148 

Coefficients:
             Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept) 42.862007   0.872084   49.15   <2e-16 ***
lstat       -2.332821   0.123803  -18.84   <2e-16 ***
I(lstat^2)   0.043547   0.003745   11.63   <2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 5.524 on 503 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.6407,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.6393 
F-statistic: 448.5 on 2 and 503 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [13]:
fit7=lm(medv~poly(lstat,4))
points(lstat,fitted(fit7),col="blue",pch=20)
plot(1:20,1:20,pch=1:20,cex=2)
Error in plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...): plot.new has not been called yet
Traceback:

1. points(lstat, fitted(fit7), col = "blue", pch = 20)
2. points.default(lstat, fitted(fit7), col = "blue", pch = 20)
3. plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...)
In [14]:
###Qualitative predictors
fix(Carseats)
names(Carseats)
summary(Carseats)
Error in .External2(C_edit, name, file, title, editor): problem with running editor subl -w
Traceback:

1. fix(Carseats)
2. edit(get(subx, envir = parent), title = subx, ...)
3. edit.data.frame(get(subx, envir = parent), title = subx, ...)
4. edit.default(name, ...)
In [15]:
fit1=lm(Sales~.+Income:Advertising+Age:Price,Carseats)
summary(fit1)
Call:
lm(formula = Sales ~ . + Income:Advertising + Age:Price, data = Carseats)

Residuals:
    Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
-2.9208 -0.7503  0.0177  0.6754  3.3413 

Coefficients:
                     Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept)         6.5755654  1.0087470   6.519 2.22e-10 ***
CompPrice           0.0929371  0.0041183  22.567  < 2e-16 ***
Income              0.0108940  0.0026044   4.183 3.57e-05 ***
Advertising         0.0702462  0.0226091   3.107 0.002030 ** 
Population          0.0001592  0.0003679   0.433 0.665330    
Price              -0.1008064  0.0074399 -13.549  < 2e-16 ***
ShelveLocGood       4.8486762  0.1528378  31.724  < 2e-16 ***
ShelveLocMedium     1.9532620  0.1257682  15.531  < 2e-16 ***
Age                -0.0579466  0.0159506  -3.633 0.000318 ***
Education          -0.0208525  0.0196131  -1.063 0.288361    
UrbanYes            0.1401597  0.1124019   1.247 0.213171    
USYes              -0.1575571  0.1489234  -1.058 0.290729    
Income:Advertising  0.0007510  0.0002784   2.698 0.007290 ** 
Price:Age           0.0001068  0.0001333   0.801 0.423812    
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 1.011 on 386 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.8761,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.8719 
F-statistic:   210 on 13 and 386 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
In [16]:
contrasts(Carseats$ShelveLoc)
GoodMedium
Bad00
Good10
Medium01
In [17]:
###Writing R functions
regplot=function(x,y){
  fit=lm(y~x)
  plot(x,y)
  abline(fit,col="red")
}
attach(Carseats)
regplot(Price,Sales)
regplot=function(x,y,...){
  fit=lm(y~x)
  plot(x,y,...)
  abline(fit,col="red")
}
regplot(Price,Sales,xlab="Price",ylab="Sales",col="blue",pch=20)