Варианты иморта модулей

In [1]:
g1 = set(globals().keys())
import contextlib
g2 = set(globals().keys())
g2.difference(g1)
Out[1]:
{'contextlib', 'g1'}
In [2]:
contextlib.contextmanager
Out[2]:
<function contextlib.contextmanager>
In [3]:
import numpy as np
g3 = set(globals().keys())
g3.difference(g2)
Out[3]:
{'_1', '_2', '_i2', '_i3', 'g2', 'np'}
In [4]:
from contextlib import closing
g4 = set(globals().keys())
g4.difference(g3)
Out[4]:
{'_3', '_i4', 'closing', 'g3'}
In [5]:
from contextlib import *
g5 = set(globals().keys())
g5.difference(g4)
Out[5]:
{'ContextDecorator',
 'ExitStack',
 '_4',
 '_i5',
 'contextmanager',
 'g4',
 'redirect_stdout',
 'suppress'}
In [6]:
from socket import *
g6 = set(globals().keys())
g6.difference(g5)
Out[6]:
{'AF_APPLETALK',
 'AF_DECnet',
 'AF_INET',
 'AF_INET6',
 'AF_IPX',
 'AF_LINK',
 'AF_ROUTE',
 'AF_SNA',
 'AF_SYSTEM',
 'AF_UNIX',
 'AF_UNSPEC',
 'AI_ADDRCONFIG',
 'AI_ALL',
 'AI_CANONNAME',
 'AI_DEFAULT',
 'AI_MASK',
 'AI_NUMERICHOST',
 'AI_NUMERICSERV',
 'AI_PASSIVE',
 'AI_V4MAPPED',
 'AI_V4MAPPED_CFG',
 'AddressFamily',
 'CAPI',
 'CMSG_LEN',
 'CMSG_SPACE',
 'EAI_ADDRFAMILY',
 'EAI_AGAIN',
 'EAI_BADFLAGS',
 'EAI_BADHINTS',
 'EAI_FAIL',
 'EAI_FAMILY',
 'EAI_MAX',
 'EAI_MEMORY',
 'EAI_NODATA',
 'EAI_NONAME',
 'EAI_OVERFLOW',
 'EAI_PROTOCOL',
 'EAI_SERVICE',
 'EAI_SOCKTYPE',
 'EAI_SYSTEM',
 'INADDR_ALLHOSTS_GROUP',
 'INADDR_ANY',
 'INADDR_BROADCAST',
 'INADDR_LOOPBACK',
 'INADDR_MAX_LOCAL_GROUP',
 'INADDR_NONE',
 'INADDR_UNSPEC_GROUP',
 'IPPORT_RESERVED',
 'IPPORT_USERRESERVED',
 'IPPROTO_AH',
 'IPPROTO_DSTOPTS',
 'IPPROTO_EGP',
 'IPPROTO_EON',
 'IPPROTO_ESP',
 'IPPROTO_FRAGMENT',
 'IPPROTO_GGP',
 'IPPROTO_GRE',
 'IPPROTO_HELLO',
 'IPPROTO_HOPOPTS',
 'IPPROTO_ICMP',
 'IPPROTO_ICMPV6',
 'IPPROTO_IDP',
 'IPPROTO_IGMP',
 'IPPROTO_IP',
 'IPPROTO_IPCOMP',
 'IPPROTO_IPIP',
 'IPPROTO_IPV4',
 'IPPROTO_IPV6',
 'IPPROTO_MAX',
 'IPPROTO_ND',
 'IPPROTO_NONE',
 'IPPROTO_PIM',
 'IPPROTO_PUP',
 'IPPROTO_RAW',
 'IPPROTO_ROUTING',
 'IPPROTO_RSVP',
 'IPPROTO_SCTP',
 'IPPROTO_TCP',
 'IPPROTO_TP',
 'IPPROTO_UDP',
 'IPPROTO_XTP',
 'IPV6_CHECKSUM',
 'IPV6_JOIN_GROUP',
 'IPV6_LEAVE_GROUP',
 'IPV6_MULTICAST_HOPS',
 'IPV6_MULTICAST_IF',
 'IPV6_MULTICAST_LOOP',
 'IPV6_RECVTCLASS',
 'IPV6_RTHDR_TYPE_0',
 'IPV6_TCLASS',
 'IPV6_UNICAST_HOPS',
 'IPV6_V6ONLY',
 'IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP',
 'IP_DEFAULT_MULTICAST_LOOP',
 'IP_DEFAULT_MULTICAST_TTL',
 'IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP',
 'IP_HDRINCL',
 'IP_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS',
 'IP_MULTICAST_IF',
 'IP_MULTICAST_LOOP',
 'IP_MULTICAST_TTL',
 'IP_OPTIONS',
 'IP_RECVDSTADDR',
 'IP_RECVOPTS',
 'IP_RECVRETOPTS',
 'IP_RETOPTS',
 'IP_TOS',
 'IP_TTL',
 'LOCAL_PEERCRED',
 'MSG_CTRUNC',
 'MSG_DONTROUTE',
 'MSG_DONTWAIT',
 'MSG_EOF',
 'MSG_EOR',
 'MSG_OOB',
 'MSG_PEEK',
 'MSG_TRUNC',
 'MSG_WAITALL',
 'NI_DGRAM',
 'NI_MAXHOST',
 'NI_MAXSERV',
 'NI_NAMEREQD',
 'NI_NOFQDN',
 'NI_NUMERICHOST',
 'NI_NUMERICSERV',
 'PF_SYSTEM',
 'SCM_CREDS',
 'SCM_RIGHTS',
 'SHUT_RD',
 'SHUT_RDWR',
 'SHUT_WR',
 'SOCK_DGRAM',
 'SOCK_RAW',
 'SOCK_RDM',
 'SOCK_SEQPACKET',
 'SOCK_STREAM',
 'SOL_IP',
 'SOL_SOCKET',
 'SOL_TCP',
 'SOL_UDP',
 'SOMAXCONN',
 'SO_ACCEPTCONN',
 'SO_BROADCAST',
 'SO_DEBUG',
 'SO_DONTROUTE',
 'SO_ERROR',
 'SO_KEEPALIVE',
 'SO_LINGER',
 'SO_OOBINLINE',
 'SO_RCVBUF',
 'SO_RCVLOWAT',
 'SO_RCVTIMEO',
 'SO_REUSEADDR',
 'SO_REUSEPORT',
 'SO_SNDBUF',
 'SO_SNDLOWAT',
 'SO_SNDTIMEO',
 'SO_TYPE',
 'SO_USELOOPBACK',
 'SYSPROTO_CONTROL',
 'SocketKind',
 'SocketType',
 'TCP_KEEPCNT',
 'TCP_KEEPINTVL',
 'TCP_MAXSEG',
 'TCP_NODELAY',
 '_5',
 '_i6',
 'create_connection',
 'dup',
 'error',
 'fromfd',
 'g5',
 'gaierror',
 'getaddrinfo',
 'getdefaulttimeout',
 'getfqdn',
 'gethostbyaddr',
 'gethostbyname',
 'gethostbyname_ex',
 'gethostname',
 'getnameinfo',
 'getprotobyname',
 'getservbyname',
 'getservbyport',
 'has_ipv6',
 'herror',
 'htonl',
 'htons',
 'if_indextoname',
 'if_nameindex',
 'if_nametoindex',
 'inet_aton',
 'inet_ntoa',
 'inet_ntop',
 'inet_pton',
 'ntohl',
 'ntohs',
 'setdefaulttimeout',
 'sethostname',
 'socket',
 'socketpair',
 'timeout'}

Процесс импорта

In [1]:
import sys
sys.modules
Out[1]:
{'IPython': <module 'IPython' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.config': <module 'IPython.config' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/config/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.config.application': <module 'IPython.config.application' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/config/application.py'>,
 'IPython.config.configurable': <module 'IPython.config.configurable' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/config/configurable.py'>,
 'IPython.config.loader': <module 'IPython.config.loader' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/config/loader.py'>,
 'IPython.core': <module 'IPython.core' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.core.alias': <module 'IPython.core.alias' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/alias.py'>,
 'IPython.core.application': <module 'IPython.core.application' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/application.py'>,
 'IPython.core.autocall': <module 'IPython.core.autocall' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/autocall.py'>,
 'IPython.core.builtin_trap': <module 'IPython.core.builtin_trap' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/builtin_trap.py'>,
 'IPython.core.compilerop': <module 'IPython.core.compilerop' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/compilerop.py'>,
 'IPython.core.completer': <module 'IPython.core.completer' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/completer.py'>,
 'IPython.core.completerlib': <module 'IPython.core.completerlib' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/completerlib.py'>,
 'IPython.core.crashhandler': <module 'IPython.core.crashhandler' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/crashhandler.py'>,
 'IPython.core.debugger': <module 'IPython.core.debugger' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/debugger.py'>,
 'IPython.core.display': <module 'IPython.core.display' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/display.py'>,
 'IPython.core.display_trap': <module 'IPython.core.display_trap' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/display_trap.py'>,
 'IPython.core.displayhook': <module 'IPython.core.displayhook' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/displayhook.py'>,
 'IPython.core.displaypub': <module 'IPython.core.displaypub' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/displaypub.py'>,
 'IPython.core.error': <module 'IPython.core.error' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/error.py'>,
 'IPython.core.events': <module 'IPython.core.events' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/events.py'>,
 'IPython.core.excolors': <module 'IPython.core.excolors' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/excolors.py'>,
 'IPython.core.extensions': <module 'IPython.core.extensions' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/extensions.py'>,
 'IPython.core.formatters': <module 'IPython.core.formatters' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/formatters.py'>,
 'IPython.core.getipython': <module 'IPython.core.getipython' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/getipython.py'>,
 'IPython.core.history': <module 'IPython.core.history' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/history.py'>,
 'IPython.core.hooks': <module 'IPython.core.hooks' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/hooks.py'>,
 'IPython.core.inputsplitter': <module 'IPython.core.inputsplitter' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/inputsplitter.py'>,
 'IPython.core.inputtransformer': <module 'IPython.core.inputtransformer' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/inputtransformer.py'>,
 'IPython.core.interactiveshell': <module 'IPython.core.interactiveshell' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/interactiveshell.py'>,
 'IPython.core.latex_symbols': <module 'IPython.core.latex_symbols' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/latex_symbols.py'>,
 'IPython.core.logger': <module 'IPython.core.logger' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/logger.py'>,
 'IPython.core.macro': <module 'IPython.core.macro' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/macro.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magic': <module 'IPython.core.magic' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magic.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magic_arguments': <module 'IPython.core.magic_arguments' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magic_arguments.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics': <module 'IPython.core.magics' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.auto': <module 'IPython.core.magics.auto' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/auto.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.basic': <module 'IPython.core.magics.basic' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/basic.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.code': <module 'IPython.core.magics.code' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/code.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.config': <module 'IPython.core.magics.config' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/config.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.deprecated': <module 'IPython.core.magics.deprecated' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/deprecated.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.display': <module 'IPython.core.magics.display' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/display.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.execution': <module 'IPython.core.magics.execution' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/execution.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.extension': <module 'IPython.core.magics.extension' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/extension.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.history': <module 'IPython.core.magics.history' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/history.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.logging': <module 'IPython.core.magics.logging' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/logging.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.namespace': <module 'IPython.core.magics.namespace' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/namespace.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.osm': <module 'IPython.core.magics.osm' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/osm.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.pylab': <module 'IPython.core.magics.pylab' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/pylab.py'>,
 'IPython.core.magics.script': <module 'IPython.core.magics.script' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/magics/script.py'>,
 'IPython.core.oinspect': <module 'IPython.core.oinspect' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/oinspect.py'>,
 'IPython.core.page': <module 'IPython.core.page' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/page.py'>,
 'IPython.core.payload': <module 'IPython.core.payload' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/payload.py'>,
 'IPython.core.payloadpage': <module 'IPython.core.payloadpage' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/payloadpage.py'>,
 'IPython.core.prefilter': <module 'IPython.core.prefilter' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/prefilter.py'>,
 'IPython.core.profiledir': <module 'IPython.core.profiledir' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/profiledir.py'>,
 'IPython.core.prompts': <module 'IPython.core.prompts' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/prompts.py'>,
 'IPython.core.pylabtools': <module 'IPython.core.pylabtools' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py'>,
 'IPython.core.release': <module 'IPython.core.release' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/release.py'>,
 'IPython.core.shadowns': <module 'IPython.core.shadowns' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/shadowns.py'>,
 'IPython.core.shellapp': <module 'IPython.core.shellapp' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/shellapp.py'>,
 'IPython.core.splitinput': <module 'IPython.core.splitinput' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/splitinput.py'>,
 'IPython.core.ultratb': <module 'IPython.core.ultratb' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/ultratb.py'>,
 'IPython.core.usage': <module 'IPython.core.usage' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/core/usage.py'>,
 'IPython.display': <module 'IPython.display' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/display.py'>,
 'IPython.extensions': <module 'IPython.extensions' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/extensions/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.extensions.storemagic': <module 'IPython.extensions.storemagic' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/extensions/storemagic.py'>,
 'IPython.external': <module 'IPython.external' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.external.decorator': <module 'IPython.external.decorator' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/decorator/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.external.decorator._decorator': <module 'IPython.external.decorator._decorator' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/decorator/_decorator.py'>,
 'IPython.external.path': <module 'IPython.external.path' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/path/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.external.path._path': <module 'IPython.external.path._path' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/path/_path.py'>,
 'IPython.external.pexpect': <module 'IPython.external.pexpect' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/pexpect/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.external.pexpect._pexpect': <module 'IPython.external.pexpect._pexpect' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/pexpect/_pexpect.py'>,
 'IPython.external.simplegeneric': <module 'IPython.external.simplegeneric' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/simplegeneric/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.external.simplegeneric._simplegeneric': <module 'IPython.external.simplegeneric._simplegeneric' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/external/simplegeneric/_simplegeneric.py'>,
 'IPython.html': <module 'IPython.html' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/html/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.html.nbextensions': <module 'IPython.html.nbextensions' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/html/nbextensions.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel': <module 'IPython.kernel' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.adapter': <module 'IPython.kernel.adapter' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/adapter.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.blocking': <module 'IPython.kernel.blocking' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/blocking/__init__.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.blocking.channels': <module 'IPython.kernel.blocking.channels' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/blocking/channels.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.blocking.client': <module 'IPython.kernel.blocking.client' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/blocking/client.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.channels': <module 'IPython.kernel.channels' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/channels.py'>,
 'IPython.kernel.channelsabc': <module 'IPython.kernel.channelsabc' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/kernel/channelsabc.py'>,
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 'tornado.concurrent': <module 'tornado.concurrent' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/concurrent.py'>,
 'tornado.escape': <module 'tornado.escape' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/escape.py'>,
 'tornado.ioloop': <module 'tornado.ioloop' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/ioloop.py'>,
 'tornado.log': <module 'tornado.log' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/log.py'>,
 'tornado.platform': <module 'tornado.platform' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/platform/__init__.py'>,
 'tornado.platform.auto': <module 'tornado.platform.auto' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/platform/auto.py'>,
 'tornado.platform.interface': <module 'tornado.platform.interface' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/platform/interface.py'>,
 'tornado.platform.posix': <module 'tornado.platform.posix' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/platform/posix.py'>,
 'tornado.speedups': <module 'tornado.speedups' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/speedups.so'>,
 'tornado.stack_context': <module 'tornado.stack_context' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/stack_context.py'>,
 'tornado.util': <module 'tornado.util' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/tornado/util.py'>,
 'traceback': <module 'traceback' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/traceback.py'>,
 'tty': <module 'tty' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/tty.py'>,
 'types': <module 'types' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/types.py'>,
 'urllib': <module 'urllib' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/urllib/__init__.py'>,
 'urllib.error': <module 'urllib.error' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/urllib/error.py'>,
 'urllib.parse': <module 'urllib.parse' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/urllib/parse.py'>,
 'urllib.request': <module 'urllib.request' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/urllib/request.py'>,
 'urllib.response': <module 'urllib.response' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/urllib/response.py'>,
 'uu': <module 'uu' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/uu.py'>,
 'uuid': <module 'uuid' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/uuid.py'>,
 'warnings': <module 'warnings' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/warnings.py'>,
 'weakref': <module 'weakref' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/weakref.py'>,
 'zipfile': <module 'zipfile' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/zipfile.py'>,
 'zipimport': <module 'zipimport' (built-in)>,
 'zlib': <module 'zlib' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload/zlib.so'>,
 'zmq': <module 'zmq' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.backend': <module 'zmq.backend' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython': <module 'zmq.backend.cython' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython._device': <module 'zmq.backend.cython._device' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/_device.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython._poll': <module 'zmq.backend.cython._poll' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/_poll.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython._version': <module 'zmq.backend.cython._version' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/_version.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.constants': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.constants' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/constants.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.context': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.context' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/context.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.error': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.error' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/error.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.message': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.message' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/message.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.socket': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.socket' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/socket.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.cython.utils': <module 'zmq.backend.cython.utils' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/cython/utils.so'>,
 'zmq.backend.select': <module 'zmq.backend.select' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/backend/select.py'>,
 'zmq.devices': <module 'zmq.devices' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/devices/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.devices.basedevice': <module 'zmq.devices.basedevice' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/devices/basedevice.py'>,
 'zmq.devices.monitoredqueue': <module 'zmq.devices.monitoredqueue' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/devices/monitoredqueue.so'>,
 'zmq.devices.monitoredqueuedevice': <module 'zmq.devices.monitoredqueuedevice' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/devices/monitoredqueuedevice.py'>,
 'zmq.devices.proxydevice': <module 'zmq.devices.proxydevice' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/devices/proxydevice.py'>,
 'zmq.error': <module 'zmq.error' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/error.py'>,
 'zmq.eventloop': <module 'zmq.eventloop' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/eventloop/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.eventloop.ioloop': <module 'zmq.eventloop.ioloop' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/eventloop/ioloop.py'>,
 'zmq.eventloop.zmqstream': <module 'zmq.eventloop.zmqstream' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/eventloop/zmqstream.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar': <module 'zmq.sugar' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.attrsettr': <module 'zmq.sugar.attrsettr' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/attrsettr.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.constants': <module 'zmq.sugar.constants' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/constants.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.context': <module 'zmq.sugar.context' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/context.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.frame': <module 'zmq.sugar.frame' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/frame.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.poll': <module 'zmq.sugar.poll' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/poll.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.socket': <module 'zmq.sugar.socket' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/socket.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.tracker': <module 'zmq.sugar.tracker' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/tracker.py'>,
 'zmq.sugar.version': <module 'zmq.sugar.version' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/sugar/version.py'>,
 'zmq.utils': <module 'zmq.utils' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/__init__.py'>,
 'zmq.utils.constant_names': <module 'zmq.utils.constant_names' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/constant_names.py'>,
 'zmq.utils.interop': <module 'zmq.utils.interop' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/interop.py'>,
 'zmq.utils.jsonapi': <module 'zmq.utils.jsonapi' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/jsonapi.py'>,
 'zmq.utils.sixcerpt': <module 'zmq.utils.sixcerpt' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/sixcerpt.py'>,
 'zmq.utils.strtypes': <module 'zmq.utils.strtypes' from '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/zmq/utils/strtypes.py'>}
In [2]:
sys.meta_path
Out[2]:
[_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter,
 _frozen_importlib.FrozenImporter,
 _frozen_importlib.PathFinder]
In [3]:
sys.path
Out[3]:
['',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python34.zip',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/plat-darwin',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/readline',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages',
 '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/IPython/extensions']
In [4]:
!PYTHONPATH=/asdf python3.4 -c 'import sys; print(sys.path)'
['', '/asdf', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python34.zip', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/plat-darwin', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages/readline', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/lib-dynload', '/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/lib/python3.4/site-packages']

Создание модулей

In [1]:
%%writefile module.py

def f():
    pass

class C:
    pass

x = 1

print('hello from module.py')
Writing module.py
In [2]:
import module
hello from module.py
In [3]:
dir(module)
Out[3]:
['C',
 '__builtins__',
 '__cached__',
 '__doc__',
 '__file__',
 '__loader__',
 '__name__',
 '__package__',
 '__spec__',
 'f',
 'x']
In [4]:
%%writefile module.py

def f():
    pass

class C:
    pass

x = 1

if __name__ == '__main__':
    print('hello from main')
else:
    print('hello from module.py')
Overwriting module.py
In [1]:
!python3.4 module.py
hello from main
In [2]:
import module
hello from module.py

Пакеты

In [1]:
!mkdir package
In [2]:
%%writefile package/__init__.py

print('hello from package')
Writing package/__init__.py
In [3]:
%%writefile package/a.py

print('hello from a')
Writing package/a.py
In [4]:
%%writefile package/b.py

print('hello from b')
Writing package/b.py
In [5]:
import package.a
hello from package
hello from a
In [6]:
import package.b
hello from b
In [7]:
from package import a
a
Out[7]:
<module 'package.a' from '/Users/tswr/repositories/Python/git/imkn-python/video-lectures2015/8/package/a.py'>
In [8]:
from package import *
b
Out[8]:
<module 'package.b' from '/Users/tswr/repositories/Python/git/imkn-python/video-lectures2015/8/package/b.py'>
In [1]:
%%writefile package/__init__.py

__all__ = ['b']
print('hello from package')
Overwriting package/__init__.py
In [2]:
from package import *
hello from package
hello from b
In [3]:
b
Out[3]:
<module 'package.b' from '/Users/tswr/repositories/Python/git/imkn-python/video-lectures2015/8/package/b.py'>
In [4]:
a
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
NameError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-4-60b725f10c9c> in <module>()
----> 1 a

NameError: name 'a' is not defined