# QuTiP example: Quantum Gates and their usage¶

Author: Anubhav Vardhan ([email protected])

In [1]:
%matplotlib inline

In [2]:
from IPython.display import Image

In [3]:
from numpy import pi

In [4]:
from qutip import *


## Gates in QuTiP and their representation¶

### Controlled-PHASE¶

In [5]:
cphase(pi/2)

Out[5]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0j\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [6]:
Image(filename='images/cphase.png')

Out[6]:

In [7]:
rx(pi/2)

Out[7]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.707 & -0.707j\\-0.707j & 0.707\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [8]:
Image(filename='images/rx.png')

Out[8]:

In [9]:
ry(pi/2)

Out[9]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.707 & -0.707\\0.707 & 0.707\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [10]:
Image(filename='images/ry.png')

Out[10]:

In [11]:
rz(pi/2)

Out[11]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.707-0.707j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.707+0.707j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [12]:
Image(filename='images/rz.png')

Out[12]:

### CNOT¶

In [13]:
cnot()

Out[13]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [14]:
Image(filename='images/cnot.png')

Out[14]:

### CSIGN¶

In [15]:
csign()

Out[15]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & -1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [16]:
Image(filename='images/csign.png')

Out[16]:

### Berkeley¶

In [17]:
berkeley()

Out[17]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.924 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.383j\\0.0 & 0.383 & 0.924j & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.924j & 0.383 & 0.0\\0.383j & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.924\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [18]:
Image(filename='images/berkeley.png')

Out[18]:

### SWAPalpha¶

In [19]:
swapalpha(pi/2)

Out[19]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.610-0.488j) & (0.390+0.488j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.390+0.488j) & (0.610-0.488j) & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [20]:
Image(filename='images/swapalpha.png')

Out[20]:

### FREDKIN¶

In [21]:
fredkin()

Out[21]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [22]:
Image(filename='images/fredkin.png')

Out[22]:

### TOFFOLI¶

In [23]:
toffoli()

Out[23]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [24]:
Image(filename='images/toffoli.png')

Out[24]:

### SWAP¶

In [25]:
swap()

Out[25]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [26]:
Image(filename='images/swap.png')

Out[26]:

### ISWAP¶

In [27]:
iswap()

Out[27]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0j & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0j & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [28]:
Image(filename='images/iswap.png')

Out[28]:

### SQRTiSWAP¶

In [29]:
sqrtiswap()

Out[29]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.707 & 0.707j & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.707j & 0.707 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [30]:
Image(filename='images/sqrtiswap.png')

Out[30]:

### SQRTSWAP¶

In [31]:
sqrtswap()

Out[31]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.500+0.500j) & (0.500-0.500j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.500-0.500j) & (0.500+0.500j) & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [32]:
Image(filename='images/sqrtswap.png')

Out[32]:

### SQRTNOT¶

In [33]:
sqrtnot()

Out[33]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.500+0.500j) & (0.500-0.500j)\\(0.500-0.500j) & (0.500+0.500j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [34]:
Image(filename='images/sqrtnot.png')

Out[34]:

In [35]:
snot()

Out[35]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}0.707 & 0.707\\0.707 & -0.707\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [36]:
Image(filename='images/snot.png')

Out[36]:

### PHASEGATE¶

In [37]:
phasegate(pi/2)

Out[37]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0j\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [38]:
Image(filename='images/phasegate.png')

Out[38]:

### GLOBALPHASE¶

In [39]:
globalphase(pi/2)

Out[39]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2], [2]], shape = [2, 2], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0j & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0j\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [40]:
Image(filename='images/globalphase.png')

Out[40]:

### Expanding gates to larger qubit registers¶

The example above show how to generate matrice representations of the gates implemented in QuTiP, in their minimal qubit requirements. If the same gates is to be represented in a qubit register of size $N$, the optional keywork argument N can be specified when calling the gate function. For example, to generate the matrix for the CNOT gate for a $N=3$ bit register:

In [41]:
cnot(N=3)

Out[41]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [42]:
Image(filename='images/cnot310.png')

Out[42]:

Furthermore, the control and target qubits (when applicable) can also be similarly specified using keyword arguments control and target (or in some cases controls or targets):

In [43]:
cnot(N=3, control=2, target=0)

Out[43]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [44]:
Image(filename='images/cnot302.png')

Out[44]:

## Setup of a Qubit Circuit¶

The gates implemented in QuTiP can be used to build any qubit circuit using the class QubitCircuit. The output can be obtained in the form of a unitary matrix or a latex representation.

In the following example, we take a SWAP gate. It is known that a swap gate is equivalent to three CNOT gates applied in the given format.

In [45]:
N = 2
qc0 = QubitCircuit(N)
qc0.png

Out[45]:
In [46]:
U_list0 = qc0.propagators()
U0 = gate_sequence_product(U_list0)
U0

Out[46]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [47]:
qc1 = QubitCircuit(N)
qc1.png

Out[47]:
In [48]:
U_list1 = qc1.propagators()
U1 = gate_sequence_product(U_list1)
U1

Out[48]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

In place of manually converting the SWAP gate to CNOTs, it can be automatically converted using an inbuilt function in QubitCircuit

In [49]:
qc2 = qc0.resolve_gates("CNOT")
qc2.png

Out[49]:
In [50]:
U_list2 = qc2.propagators()
U2 = gate_sequence_product(U_list2)
U2

Out[50]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

## Example of basis transformation¶

In [51]:
qc3 = QubitCircuit(3)
qc3.png

Out[51]:
In [52]:
U3 = gate_sequence_product(qc3.propagators())
U3

Out[52]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j)\\(-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

### The transformation can either be only in terms of 2-qubit gates:¶

In [53]:
qc4 = qc3.resolve_gates("CNOT")
qc4.png

Out[53]:
In [54]:
U4 = gate_sequence_product(qc4.propagators())
U4

Out[54]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j)\\(-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [55]:
qc5 = qc3.resolve_gates("ISWAP")
qc5.png

Out[55]:
In [56]:
U5 = gate_sequence_product(qc5.propagators())
U5

Out[56]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j)\\(-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

### Or the transformation can be in terms of any 2 single qubit rotation gates along with the 2-qubit gate.¶

In [57]:
qc6 = qc3.resolve_gates(["ISWAP", "RX", "RY"])
qc6.png

Out[57]:
In [58]:
U6 = gate_sequence_product(qc6.propagators())
U6

Out[58]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j)\\(-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [59]:
qc7 = qc3.resolve_gates(["CNOT", "RZ", "RX"])
qc7.png

Out[59]:
In [60]:
U7 = gate_sequence_product(qc7.propagators())
U7

Out[60]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = False\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j)\\(-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0\\(0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0\\0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (-0.354+0.354j)\\0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354-0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j) & 0.0 & (0.354+0.354j)\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

Interactions between non-adjacent qubits can be resolved by QubitCircuit to a series of adjacent interactions, which is useful for systems such as spin chain models.

In [61]:
qc8 = QubitCircuit(3)
qc8.png

Out[61]:
In [62]:
U8 = gate_sequence_product(qc8.propagators())
U8

Out[62]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [63]:
qc9 = qc8.adjacent_gates()
qc9.png

Out[63]:
In [64]:
U9 = gate_sequence_product(qc9.propagators())
U9

Out[64]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}
In [65]:
qc10 = qc9.resolve_gates("CNOT")
qc10.png

Out[65]:
In [66]:
U10 = gate_sequence_product(qc10.propagators())
U10

Out[66]:
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2, 2], [2, 2, 2]], shape = [8, 8], type = oper, isherm = True\begin{equation*}\left(\begin{array}{*{11}c}1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0\\0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 0.0 & 1.0 & 0.0\\\end{array}\right)\end{equation*}

## Software versions¶

In [67]:
from qutip.ipynbtools import version_table
version_table()

Out[67]:
SoftwareVersion
matplotlib1.4.2
OSposix [linux]
SciPy0.14.1
QuTiP3.1.0
Numpy1.9.1
Cython0.21.2
Python3.4.0 (default, Apr 11 2014, 13:05:11) [GCC 4.8.2]
IPython2.3.1
Tue Jan 13 13:22:46 2015 JST