Calculation of control fields for QFT gate on two qubits using the CRAB algorithm

Alexander Pitchford ([email protected])

Example to demonstrate using the CRAB [1][2] algorithm in the control library to determine control pulses using the ctrlpulseoptim.create_pulse_optimizer function to generate an Optimizer object, through which the configuration can be manipulated before running the optmisation algorithm. In this case it is demonstrated by modifying the CRAB pulse parameters to show how pulse constraints for controls can be applied. The system in this example is two qubits in constant fields in x, y and z with a variable independant controls fields in x and y acting on each qubit The target evolution is the QFT gate. The user can experiment with the different: phase options - phase_option = SU or PSU propagtor computer type prop_type = DIAG or FRECHET fidelity measures - fid_type = UNIT or TRACEDIFF The user can experiment with the timeslicing, by means of changing the number of timeslots and/or total time for the evolution. Different guess and ramping pulse parameters can be tried. The initial and final pulses are displayed in a plot
In [1]:
%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import datetime
In [2]:
from qutip import Qobj, identity, sigmax, sigmay, sigmaz, tensor
from qutip.qip.algorithms import qft
import qutip.logging_utils as logging
logger = logging.get_logger()
#Set this to None or logging.WARN for 'quiet' execution
log_level = logging.INFO
#QuTiP control modules
import qutip.control.pulseoptim as cpo
import qutip.control.pulsegen as pulsegen

example_name = 'QFT'

Defining the physics

In [3]:
Sx = sigmax()
Sy = sigmay()
Sz = sigmaz()
Si = 0.5*identity(2)

# Drift Hamiltonian
H_d = 0.5*(tensor(Sx, Sx) + tensor(Sy, Sy) + tensor(Sz, Sz))
# The (four) control Hamiltonians
H_c = [tensor(Sx, Si), tensor(Sy, Si), tensor(Si, Sx), tensor(Si, Sy)]
n_ctrls = len(H_c)
# start point for the gate evolution
U_0 = identity(4)
# Target for the gate evolution - Quantum Fourier Transform gate
U_targ = qft.qft(2)

Defining the time evolution parameters

In [4]:
# Number of time slots
n_ts = 200
# Time allowed for the evolution
evo_time = 10

Set the conditions which will cause the pulse optimisation to terminate

In [5]:
# Fidelity error target
fid_err_targ = 1e-3
# Maximum iterations for the optisation algorithm
max_iter = 20000
# Maximum (elapsed) time allowed in seconds
max_wall_time = 300

Give an extension for output files

In [6]:
#Set to None to suppress output files
f_ext = "{}_n_ts{}.txt".format(example_name, n_ts)

Create the optimiser objects

In [7]:
optim = cpo.create_pulse_optimizer(H_d, H_c, U_0, U_targ, n_ts, evo_time, 
                fid_err_targ=fid_err_targ, 
                max_iter=max_iter, max_wall_time=max_wall_time,
                alg='CRAB', 
                dyn_type='UNIT', 
                prop_type='DIAG', 
                fid_type='UNIT', fid_params={'phase_option':'PSU'}, 
                log_level=log_level, gen_stats=True)
                

Configure the pulses for each of the controls

In [8]:
dyn = optim.dynamics

# Control 1
crab_pgen = optim.pulse_generator[0]
# Start from a ramped pulse
guess_pgen = pulsegen.create_pulse_gen('LIN', dyn=dyn, 
                                           pulse_params={'scaling':3.0})
crab_pgen.guess_pulse = guess_pgen.gen_pulse()
crab_pgen.scaling = 0.0
# Add some higher frequency components
crab_pgen.num_coeffs = 5

# Control 2
crab_pgen = optim.pulse_generator[1]
# Apply a ramping pulse that will force the start and end to zero
ramp_pgen = pulsegen.create_pulse_gen('GAUSSIAN_EDGE', dyn=dyn, 
                                    pulse_params={'decay_time':evo_time/50.0})
crab_pgen.ramping_pulse = ramp_pgen.gen_pulse()

# Control 3
crab_pgen = optim.pulse_generator[2]
# Add bounds
crab_pgen.scaling = 0.5
crab_pgen.lbound = -2.0
crab_pgen.ubound = 2.0


# Control 4
crab_pgen = optim.pulse_generator[3]
# Start from a triangular pulse with small signal
guess_pgen = pulsegen.PulseGenTriangle(dyn=dyn)
guess_pgen.num_waves = 1
guess_pgen.scaling = 2.0
guess_pgen.offset = 2.0
crab_pgen.guess_pulse = guess_pgen.gen_pulse()
crab_pgen.scaling = 0.1

init_amps = np.zeros([n_ts, n_ctrls])
for j in range(dyn.num_ctrls):
    pgen = optim.pulse_generator[j]
    pgen.init_pulse()
    init_amps[:, j] = pgen.gen_pulse()

dyn.initialize_controls(init_amps)
INFO:qutip.control.pulsegen:The number of CRAB coefficients per basis function has been estimated as 3, which means a total of 6 optimisation variables for this pulse. Based on the dimension (4) of the system
INFO:qutip.control.pulsegen:The number of CRAB coefficients per basis function has been estimated as 3, which means a total of 6 optimisation variables for this pulse. Based on the dimension (4) of the system
INFO:qutip.control.pulsegen:The number of CRAB coefficients per basis function has been estimated as 3, which means a total of 6 optimisation variables for this pulse. Based on the dimension (4) of the system
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:Internal operator data type choosen to be <class 'numpy.ndarray'>

Run the pulse optimisation

In [9]:
# Save initial amplitudes to a text file
if f_ext is not None:
    pulsefile = "ctrl_amps_initial_" + f_ext
    dyn.save_amps(pulsefile)
    print("Initial amplitudes output to file: " + pulsefile)

print("***********************************")
print("Starting pulse optimisation")
result = optim.run_optimization()

# Save final amplitudes to a text file
if f_ext is not None:
    pulsefile = "ctrl_amps_final_" + f_ext
    dyn.save_amps(pulsefile)
    print("Final amplitudes output to file: " + pulsefile)
INFO:qutip.control.optimizer:Optimising pulse(s) using CRAB with 'fmin' (Nelder-Mead) method
Initial amplitudes output to file: ctrl_amps_initial_QFT_n_ts200.txt
***********************************
Starting pulse optimisation
Final amplitudes output to file: ctrl_amps_final_QFT_n_ts200.txt

Report the results

In [10]:
result.stats.report()
print("Final evolution\n{}\n".format(result.evo_full_final))
print("********* Summary *****************")
print("Initial fidelity error {}".format(result.initial_fid_err))
print("Final fidelity error {}".format(result.fid_err))
print("Terminated due to {}".format(result.termination_reason))
print("Number of iterations {}".format(result.num_iter))
print("Completed in {} HH:MM:SS.US".format(
        datetime.timedelta(seconds=result.wall_time)))
------------------------------------
---- Control optimisation stats ----
**** Timings (HH:MM:SS.US) ****
Total wall time elapsed during optimisation: 0:02:38.874389
Wall time computing Hamiltonians: 0:00:10.319926 (6.50%)
Wall time computing propagators: 0:02:23.410507 (90.27%)
Wall time computing forward propagation: 0:00:01.334937 (0.84%)
Wall time computing onward propagation: 0:00:01.315355 (0.83%)
Wall time computing gradient: 0:00:00 (0.00%)

**** Iterations and function calls ****
Number of iterations: 5762
Number of fidelity function calls: 6891
Number of times fidelity is computed: 6891
Number of gradient function calls: 0
Number of times gradients are computed: 0
Number of times timeslot evolution is recomputed: 6891

**** Control amplitudes ****
Number of control amplitude updates: 6890
Mean number of updates per iteration: 1.1957653592502604
Number of timeslot values changed: 1377994
Mean number of timeslot changes per update: 199.99912917271408
Number of amplitude values changed: 5488929
Mean number of amplitude changes per update: 796.6515239477503
------------------------------------
Final evolution
Quantum object: dims = [[4], [4]], shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isherm = False
Qobj data =
[[ 0.46727002+0.1910191j   0.47109818+0.20664124j  0.44784997+0.17140814j
   0.45285987+0.21331649j]
 [ 0.47686815+0.20306013j -0.18512050+0.44645624j -0.46669064-0.1950084j
   0.16480398-0.46344557j]
 [ 0.45798935+0.19069035j -0.43552764-0.19766295j  0.49229439+0.16374036j
  -0.46781698-0.19264106j]
 [ 0.42857894+0.21618699j  0.18799972-0.48751847j -0.46115896-0.17996936j
  -0.19915109+0.46026884j]]

********* Summary *****************
Initial fidelity error 0.5697873244556095
Final fidelity error 0.0009939092163465668
Terminated due to Goal achieved
Number of iterations 5762
Completed in 0:02:38.874389 HH:MM:SS.US

Plot the initial and final amplitudes

In [11]:
fig1 = plt.figure()
ax1 = fig1.add_subplot(2, 1, 1)
ax1.set_title("Initial Control amps")
ax1.set_xlabel("Time")
ax1.set_ylabel("Control amplitude")
for j in range(n_ctrls):
    ax1.step(result.time, 
             np.hstack((result.initial_amps[:, j], result.initial_amps[-1, j])), 
             where='post')
ax2 = fig1.add_subplot(2, 1, 2)
ax2.set_title("Optimised Control Amplitudes")
ax2.set_xlabel("Time")
ax2.set_ylabel("Control amplitude")
for j in range(n_ctrls):
    ax2.step(result.time, 
             np.hstack((result.final_amps[:, j], result.final_amps[-1, j])), 
             where='post', label='u{}'.format(j))
ax2.legend(loc=8, ncol=n_ctrls)

plt.show()

Versions

In [12]:
from qutip.ipynbtools import version_table

version_table()
Out[12]:
SoftwareVersion
QuTiP3.2.0.dev-66bfaac
Numpy1.10.1
SciPy0.16.0
matplotlib1.4.3
Cython0.23.1
IPython4.0.1
Python3.4.3 |Continuum Analytics, Inc.| (default, Oct 19 2015, 21:52:17) [GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-1)]
Number of CPUs4
OSposix [linux]
Thu Dec 17 14:15:06 2015 GMT
References: 3. Doria, P., Calarco, T. & Montangero, S. Optimal Control Technique for Many-Body Quantum Dynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 1–4 (2011). 4. Caneva, T., Calarco, T. & Montangero, S. Chopped random-basis quantum optimization. Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 84, (2011).