As a quick (and hopefully painless) introduction to the whole topic, have a look at:
If you want to know about the basics of Python and nothing else (no numeric Python, no plotting, no signal processing, just the very basics), that's for you:
Warning: The following topics are very much work in progress!
TODO: more topics ...
There are quite a few blog posts and other resources available, here are a few links, use your favorite search engine to find more.
Think DSP: Digital Signal Processing in Python: http://greenteapress.com/thinkdsp/
A Journey in Signal processing with IPython: https://github.com/jfbercher/LecturesSignalProcessing
Computational Methods for Psychology and Neuroscience: http://memory.osu.edu/classes/python/index.html
PHY 546: Python for Scientific Computing: http://bender.astro.sunysb.edu/classes/python-science/
Python Data Science Handbook: full text in Jupyter Notebooks
Notes on Artificial Intelligence: https://frnsys.com/ai_notes/
IPython Cookbook, Second Edition (2018): http://ipython-books.github.io/
Learning Python for Social Scientists: https://nealcaren.github.io/python-tutorials/
Programming with Python (MATH20622): http://www.maths.manchester.ac.uk/~vsego/teaching.php
pytudes: Python programs for perfecting programming skills