This example shows:

- How to write and compile C code defining functions that are accessible from Python, and
- How to call C functions from Python using the native ctypes module.

This notebook has been written for Windows systems and Microsoft's C compiler (shipped with Visual Studio).

**Note**: on Windows, for the C compiler to run, you need to execute a sequence of magic incantations before launching the IPython notebook. See the `_launch_notebook.bat`

file in this repository.

Let's write the generation of the Mandelbrot fractal in C.

In [ ]:

```
%%writefile mandelbrot.c
// Needed when creating a DLL.
#define EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
#include "stdio.h"
#include "stdlib.h"
// This function will be available in the DLL.
EXPORT void __stdcall mandelbrot(int size,
int iterations,
int *col)
{
// Variable declarations.
int i, j, n, index;
double cx, cy;
double z0, z1, z0_tmp, z0_2, z1_2;
// Loop within the grid.
for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
{
cy = -1.5 + (double)i / size * 3;
for (j = 0; j < size; j++)
{
// We initialize the loop of the system.
cx = -2.0 + (double)j / size * 3;
index = i * size + j;
// Let's run the system.
z0 = 0.0;
z1 = 0.0;
for (n = 0; n < iterations; n++)
{
z0_2 = z0 * z0;
z1_2 = z1 * z1;
if (z0_2 + z1_2 <= 100)
{
// Update the system.
z0_tmp = z0_2 - z1_2 + cx;
z1 = 2 * z0 * z1 + cy;
z0 = z0_tmp;
col[index] = n;
}
else
{
break;
}
}
}
}
}
```

Now, let's build this C source file into a DLL with Microsoft Visual Studio's `cl.exe`

. The `/LD`

option specifies that a DLL has to be created.

In [ ]:

```
!cl /LD mandelbrot.c
```

Let's access the library with ctypes.

In [ ]:

```
import ctypes
```

In [ ]:

```
lb = ctypes.CDLL('mandelbrot.dll')
```

In [ ]:

```
lib = ctypes.WinDLL(None, handle=lb._handle)
```

In [ ]:

```
# Access the mandelbrot function.
mandelbrot = lib.mandelbrot
```

NumPy and ctypes allow us to wrap the C function defined in the DLL.

In [ ]:

```
from numpy.ctypeslib import ndpointer
```

In [ ]:

```
# Define the types of the output and arguments of this function.
mandelbrot.restype = None
mandelbrot.argtypes = [ctypes.c_int, ctypes.c_int,
ndpointer(ctypes.c_int)]
```

Now, we can execute the mandelbrot function.

In [ ]:

```
import numpy as np
# We initialize an empty array.
size = 200
iterations = 100
col = np.empty((size, size), dtype=np.int32)
# We execute the C function, which will update the array.
mandelbrot(size, iterations, col)
```

The simulation has finished, let's display the fractal.

In [ ]:

```
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
```

In [ ]:

```
plt.imshow(np.log(col), cmap=plt.cm.hot,);
plt.xticks([]);
plt.yticks([]);
```

In [ ]:

```
%timeit mandelbrot(size, iterations, col)
```

We free the library handle at the end.

In [ ]:

```
lb._handle
```

In [ ]:

```
from ctypes.wintypes import HMODULE
ctypes.windll.kernel32.FreeLibrary.argtypes = [HMODULE]
ctypes.windll.kernel32.FreeLibrary(lb._handle);
```

You'll find all the explanations, figures, references, and much more in the book (to be released later this summer).

IPython Cookbook, by Cyrille Rossant, Packt Publishing, 2014 (500 pages).