# Analysis of Bridget Jones's Diary¶

## Trend Lines From A Sample¶

In [2]:
%matplotlib inline
import json
import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')
book1 = 'book_1_gist_subsampled.json'
import matplotlib
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import scipy.stats as stats

day_nos = []
weights = []
for key in sorted(data.iterkeys(), key=int):
day_nos.append(int(key))
weights.append(data[key]['weight'])
weights = np.asarray(weights)
day_nos = np.asarray(day_nos)

def lin_reg(x, xp, yp):
"""
OLS
"""
m = (np.dot(xp,yp) - (np.sum(xp) * np.sum(yp))/float(yp.size))/(np.dot(xp,xp) - np.sum(xp)**2/float(xp.size))
c = (np.sum(yp) - m * np.sum(xp))/float(xp.size)
return m * x + c

trend_line = lin_reg(day_nos, day_nos, weights)
r = trend_line - weights
r_m = np.abs(r)
fig,ax = plt.subplots(nrows=1,ncols=3, gridspec_kw={'width_ratios':[2,1,1]}, facecolor='white')
fig.suptitle('Bridget Jones\'s Weight',fontsize=15)
fig.set_size_inches(24, 6)
ax[0].scatter( day_nos, weights, s=50, marker='o', alpha=0.4)
ax[0].plot(day_nos, trend_line, color="blue", linewidth=2.0, linestyle="--", label = "Trend Line")
ax[0].set_yticks([weights.min(), weights.max()])
ax[0].set_yticklabels([str(weights.min()) + ' lbs', str(weights.max()) + ' lbs'])
ax[0].set_xticks([1,365])
ax[0].set_xticklabels(['Day 1', 'Day 365'])
ax[0].spines['right'].set_color('none')
ax[0].spines['top'].set_color('none')
ax[0].spines['left'].set_color('grey')
ax[0].spines['bottom'].set_color('grey')
ax[1].scatter( np.asarray(day_nos), np.asarray(r_m), s=25, c="red", marker='o', alpha='0.8', label="Residual Magnitudes")
ax[1].set_yticks([r_m.min(), r_m.max()])
ax[1].set_yticklabels([str(round(r_m.min())), str(round(r_m.max()))])
ax[1].set_xticks([1,365])
ax[1].set_xticklabels(['Day 1', 'Day 365'])
ax[1].spines['right'].set_color('none')
ax[1].spines['top'].set_color('none')
ax[1].spines['left'].set_color('grey')
ax[1].spines['bottom'].set_color('black')
ax[1].set_title('Residual Magnitudes')
res=stats.probplot(r, dist="norm", plot=ax[2])
ax[2].set_title('QQ Plot')
ax[2].spines['right'].set_color('none')
ax[2].spines['top'].set_color('none')
ax[2].spines['left'].set_color('grey')
ax[2].spines['bottom'].set_color('grey')
ax[2].set_ylabel('Ordered Residuals')
ax[2].set_xticks([-2.0,0,2.0])
ax[2].set_xticklabels([r'$-2.0$', r'$0$', r'$2.0$'])
ax[2].set_yticks([-8.0,0,8.0])
ax[2].set_yticklabels([r'$-8.0$', r'$0$', r'$8.0$'])
plt.show()

/Users/eshvk/anaconda/lib/python2.7/site-packages/matplotlib/font_manager.py:273: UserWarning: Matplotlib is building the font cache using fc-list. This may take a moment.
warnings.warn('Matplotlib is building the font cache using fc-list. This may take a moment.')


There is a small downward trend when fitting a trend line. Note that applying linear regression is possible only when the conditional error, i.e. the spread you would see if you weighed her every day was normally distributed with a constant variance across days.

The spread of the residuals (actual weight minus the estimated weight for the day) is by far not constant. However, it isn't apparent to me that the spread is out of line. I am not quite sure how to find. The $\mathbf{QQ}$ Plot compares the $\mathbf{CDF}$ of the residuals against that of a Standard Normal distribution. This is supposed to lie very close to that line. Again, I am not sure what very close means.

In [5]:
import pandas as pd
bf = bf.transpose()
bf.reset_index(inplace=True)
bf.rename(columns={'index':'doy'}, inplace=True)
bfc = bf.dropna()
bfc[['doy', 'weight']] = bfc[['doy', 'weight']].apply(pd.to_numeric)
fig,ax = plt.subplots(nrows=2,ncols=1,facecolor='white')
fig.suptitle('Bridget Jones\'s Weight',fontsize=30)
fig.set_size_inches(24, 24)

def loess( x, h, xp, yp ):
from numpy import *
w = exp(-0.5*((x-xp)/h)**2)/sqrt(2*pi*h**2)
b = np.dot(w,xp)*np.dot(w,yp) - np.sum(w)*np.sum(w*xp*yp)
b /= sum(w*xp)**2 - sum(w)*sum(w*xp**2)
a = ( np.dot(w,yp) - b*np.dot(w,xp) )/np.sum(w)
return a + b*x

for ii in xrange(0, 2):
ax[ii].spines['right'].set_color('none')
ax[ii].spines['top'].set_color('none')
ax[ii].spines['left'].set_color('grey')
ax[ii].spines['bottom'].set_color('grey')
ax[ii].set_ylim((bfc.weight.min() -5.0 ,bfc.weight.max() + 5.0))
ax[ii].set_yticks([bfc.weight.min(),bfc.weight.max()])
ax[ii].set_yticklabels([str(round(bfc.weight.min())) + ' lbs', str(round(bfc.weight.max())) + ' lbs'])
ax[ii].set_xticks([1,365])
ax[ii].set_xticklabels(['Day 1', 'Day 365'])

colors = [u'#4878cf', u'#6acc65', u'#d65f5f', u'#b47cc7', u'#c4ad66']
# Let us take 5 samples of 20 each
samples = []
for ii in xrange(0,5):
t = bfc[['doy', 'date','weight']].sample(frac=.25)
t.sort_values('doy', ascending=True, inplace=True)
t['lfit'] =  lin_reg(t['doy'], t.doy.values, t.weight.values)
doyl = t.doy.values.tolist()
cfit = []
for doy in doyl:
cfit.append(loess(doy, 25.0, t.doy.values, t.weight.values))
t['cfit'] = cfit
samples.append(t)
ax[0].scatter(t.doy.values, t.weight.values, color=colors[ii], s=50, marker='o', alpha=0.75)
ax[0].plot(t.doy.values, t.lfit.values, color=colors[ii], linewidth=2.0, linestyle="--", label = "Trend Line %d" % (ii))
ax[0].set_title('Trend Lines For 25% of Samples', fontsize=20)
ax[1].scatter(t.doy.values, t.weight.values, color=colors[ii], s=50, marker='o', alpha=0.75)
ax[1].plot(t.doy.values, t.cfit.values, color=colors[ii], linewidth=2.0, linestyle="-", label = "Trend Line %d" % (ii), alpha=0.5)
ax[1].set_title('Nonparametric Trend Lines For 25% of Samples', fontsize=20)
plt.show()


Conclusion:

1. Why are trend lines varying?
2. Is the variance high?
3. Is this sign that the linear estimator is high variance?
4. how do i find out?