Model fitting

Data model

In this example we discuss model fitting and show an example with CVXPY. We are given data $(x_i,y_i)\in \mathcal X \times \mathcal Y$, $i=1, \ldots, m$:

  • For $\mathcal X= {\bf R}^n$, $x$ is a feature vector.
  • For $\mathcal Y= {\bf R}$, $y$ is a (real) outcome or label.
  • For $\mathcal Y= \{-1,1\}$, $y$ is a (boolean) outcome.

Our goal is to find a model or predictor $\psi: \mathcal X \to \mathcal Y$ so that $\psi(x)\approx y$ for data $(x,y)$ that we haven't seen:

  • For $\mathcal Y ={\bf R}$, $\psi$ is a regression model.
  • For $\mathcal Y =\{-1,1\}$, $\psi$ is a classifier.

We choose $\psi$ based on observed data and prior knowledge.

Loss minimization model

Let our data model be parametrized by $\theta\in {\bf R}^n$. We define a loss function $L: \mathcal X \times \mathcal Y \times {\bf R}^n \to {\bf R}$ where $L(x_i,y_i,\theta)$ is the loss (miss-fit) for the data point $(x_i,y_i)$, using the model parameter $\theta$.

We choose $\theta$ to minimize the total loss $\sum_i L(x_i,y_i,\theta)$. Our model is then $\psi(x) = {\rm argmin}_y L(x,y,\theta)$.

Model fitting via regularized loss minimization

An important concept in model fitting is regularization functions $r:{\bf R}^n \to {\bf R} \cup \{\infty\}$. The function $r(\theta)$ measures model complexity, enforces constraints, or represents a prior.

With regularization, we choose $\theta$ by minimizing the regularized loss

$$(1/m) \sum_i L(x_i,y_i,\theta) + r(\theta).$$

For many useful cases, this is a convex problem. Our model again is $\psi(x) = {\rm argmin}_y L(x,y,\theta)$.


In the following code we do an example of model fitting with CVXPY. We are given (boolean) features $z\in \{0,1\}^{10}$ and (boolean) outcomes $y\in \{-1,1\}$. We generate a new feature vector $x \in \{0,1\}^{55}$ which contains all products $z_iz_j$ (co-occurence of pairs of original features).

To fit our model, we use logistic loss, or $L(x,y,\theta) = \log (1+ \exp(-y\theta^T x))$, and an $\ell_1$ regularizer $r(\theta) = \|\theta\|_1$. We train on $m=200$ examples and test on $100$ examples. We plot the train and test error as we vary $\lambda$.

In [1]:
# Generate data for logistic model fitting problem.
from __future__ import division
import numpy as np

# Construct Z given X.
def pairs(Z):
    m, n = Z.shape
    k = n*(n+1)//2
    X = np.zeros((m,k))
    count = 0
    for i in range(n):
        for j in range(i,n):
            X[:,count] = Z[:,i]*Z[:,j]
            count += 1
    return X
n = 10
k = n*(n+1)//2
m = 200
TEST = 100
sigma = 1.9
theta_true = np.random.randn(n,1)
idxs = np.random.choice(range(n), int((1-DENSITY)*n), replace=False)
for idx in idxs:
    beta_true[idx] = 0

Z = np.random.binomial(1, 0.5, size=(m,n))
Y = np.sign( + np.random.normal(0,sigma,size=(m,1)))
X = pairs(Z)
X = np.hstack([X, np.ones((m,1))])
Z_test = np.random.binomial(1, 0.5, size=(TEST,n))
Y_test = np.sign( + np.random.normal(0,sigma,size=(TEST,1)))
X_test = pairs(Z_test)
X_test = np.hstack([X_test, np.ones((TEST,1))])
In [2]:
# Form model fitting problem with logistic loss and L1 regularization.
from cvxpy import *
theta = Variable(k+1)
lambd = Parameter(sign="positive")
loss = 0
for i in range(m):
    loss += log_sum_exp(vstack(0, -Y[i]*X[i,:].T*theta))
reg = norm(theta[:k], 1)
prob = Problem(Minimize(loss/m + lambd*reg))
In [3]:
# Compute a trade-off curve and record train and test error.
TRIALS = 100
train_error = np.zeros(TRIALS)
test_error = np.zeros(TRIALS)
lambda_vals = np.logspace(-4, 0, TRIALS)
for i in range(TRIALS):
    lambd.value = lambda_vals[i]
    train_error[i] = (np.sign( != np.sign(
    test_error[i] = (np.sign( != np.sign(
In [4]:
# Plot the train and test error over the trade-off curve.
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'svg'
plt.plot(lambda_vals, train_error, label="Train error")
plt.plot(lambda_vals, test_error, label="Test error")
plt.legend(loc='upper left')
plt.xlabel(r"$\lambda$", fontsize=16)

Below we plot $|\theta_{k}|$, $k=1,\ldots,55$, for the $\lambda$ that minimized the test error. Each $|\theta_{k}|$ is placed at position $(i,j)$ where $z_iz_j = x_k$. Notice that many $\theta_{k}$ are $0$, as we would expect with $\ell_1$ regularization.

In [5]:
# Solve model fitting problem with the lambda that minimizes test error.
idx = np.argmin(test_error)
lambd.value = lambda_vals[idx]

# Plot the absolute value of the entries in theta corresponding to each feature.
P = np.zeros((n,n))
count = 0
for i in range(n):
    for j in range(i,n):
        P[i,j] = np.abs(theta.value[count])
        count += 1
row_labels = range(1,n+1)
column_labels = range(1,n+1)

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
heatmap = ax.pcolor(P,

# put the major ticks at the middle of each cell
ax.set_xticks(np.arange(P.shape[1])+0.5, minor=False)
ax.set_yticks(np.arange(P.shape[0])+0.5, minor=False)

# want a more natural, table-like display

ax.set_xticklabels(column_labels, minor=False)
ax.set_yticklabels(row_labels, minor=False)

plt.xlabel(r"$z_i$", fontsize=16)
plt.ylabel(r"$z_j$", fontsize=16)