In [1]:
from IPython.core.display import Image
Image(url='http://labrosa.ee.columbia.edu/crucialpython/logo.png', width=600)
Out[1]:

One very good feature of MATLAB is that it is very easy for debugging, which is one of the main reason that many people still use MATLAB. Since correcting bugs is so important in coding, today we are going to share some python feature for debugging.

Debug in python

Some quick commands

Assume we have a very simple piece of code

In [2]:
import numpy as np
X = 1
Y = 'c'
Z = X+Y
A = 3
B = 4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-2-d6727626de54> in <module>()
      2 X = 1
      3 Y = 'c'
----> 4 Z = X+Y
      5 A = 3
      6 B = 4

TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'str'

display variables

In [3]:
whos
Variable   Type    Data/Info
----------------------------
Image      type    <class 'IPython.core.display.Image'>
X          int     1
Y          str     c
In [4]:
locals()
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py:710: UserWarning: savefig.extension is deprecated and replaced with savefig.format; please use the latter.
  warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt))
/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py:710: UserWarning: svg.embed_char_paths is deprecated and replaced with svg.fonttype; please use the latter.
  warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt))
Out[4]:
{'ALLOW_THREADS': 1,
 'Annotation': matplotlib.text.Annotation,
 'Arrow': matplotlib.patches.Arrow,
 'Artist': matplotlib.artist.Artist,
 'AutoLocator': matplotlib.ticker.AutoLocator,
 'Axes': matplotlib.axes.Axes,
 'BUFSIZE': 8192,
 'Button': matplotlib.widgets.Button,
 'CLIP': 0,
 'Circle': matplotlib.patches.Circle,
 'ComplexWarning': numpy.core.numeric.ComplexWarning,
 'DAILY': 3,
 'DataSource': numpy.lib._datasource.DataSource,
 'DateFormatter': matplotlib.dates.DateFormatter,
 'DateLocator': matplotlib.dates.DateLocator,
 'DayLocator': matplotlib.dates.DayLocator,
 'ERR_CALL': 3,
 'ERR_DEFAULT': 0,
 'ERR_DEFAULT2': 521,
 'ERR_IGNORE': 0,
 'ERR_LOG': 5,
 'ERR_PRINT': 4,
 'ERR_RAISE': 2,
 'ERR_WARN': 1,
 'FLOATING_POINT_SUPPORT': 1,
 'FPE_DIVIDEBYZERO': 1,
 'FPE_INVALID': 8,
 'FPE_OVERFLOW': 2,
 'FPE_UNDERFLOW': 4,
 'FR': FR,
 'False_': False,
 'Figure': matplotlib.figure.Figure,
 'FigureCanvasBase': matplotlib.backend_bases.FigureCanvasBase,
 'FixedFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.FixedFormatter,
 'FixedLocator': matplotlib.ticker.FixedLocator,
 'FormatStrFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.FormatStrFormatter,
 'Formatter': matplotlib.ticker.Formatter,
 'FuncFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.FuncFormatter,
 'GridSpec': matplotlib.gridspec.GridSpec,
 'HOURLY': 4,
 'HourLocator': matplotlib.dates.HourLocator,
 'Image': IPython.core.display.Image,
 'In': ['',
  u"from IPython.core.display import Image\nImage(url='http://labrosa.ee.columbia.edu/crucialpython/logo.png', width=600)",
  u"import numpy as np\nX = 1\nY = 'c'\nZ = X+Y\nA = 3\nB = 4",
  u"get_ipython().magic(u'whos ')",
  u'locals()'],
 'IndexDateFormatter': matplotlib.dates.IndexDateFormatter,
 'IndexLocator': matplotlib.ticker.IndexLocator,
 'Inf': inf,
 'Infinity': inf,
 'LinAlgError': numpy.linalg.linalg.LinAlgError,
 'Line2D': matplotlib.lines.Line2D,
 'LinearLocator': matplotlib.ticker.LinearLocator,
 'Locator': matplotlib.ticker.Locator,
 'LogFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.LogFormatter,
 'LogFormatterExponent': matplotlib.ticker.LogFormatterExponent,
 'LogFormatterMathtext': matplotlib.ticker.LogFormatterMathtext,
 'LogLocator': matplotlib.ticker.LogLocator,
 'MAXDIMS': 32,
 'MINUTELY': 5,
 'MO': MO,
 'MONTHLY': 1,
 'MachAr': numpy.core.machar.MachAr,
 'MaxNLocator': matplotlib.ticker.MaxNLocator,
 'MinuteLocator': matplotlib.dates.MinuteLocator,
 'MonthLocator': matplotlib.dates.MonthLocator,
 'MultipleLocator': matplotlib.ticker.MultipleLocator,
 'NAN': nan,
 'NINF': -inf,
 'NZERO': -0.0,
 'NaN': nan,
 'Normalize': matplotlib.colors.Normalize,
 'NullFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.NullFormatter,
 'NullLocator': matplotlib.ticker.NullLocator,
 'Out': {1: <IPython.core.display.Image at 0x105245910>},
 'PINF': inf,
 'PZERO': 0.0,
 'PackageLoader': numpy._import_tools.PackageLoader,
 'PolarAxes': matplotlib.projections.polar.PolarAxes,
 'Polygon': matplotlib.patches.Polygon,
 'RAISE': 2,
 'RRuleLocator': matplotlib.dates.RRuleLocator,
 'RankWarning': numpy.lib.polynomial.RankWarning,
 'Rectangle': matplotlib.patches.Rectangle,
 'SA': SA,
 'SECONDLY': 6,
 'SHIFT_DIVIDEBYZERO': 0,
 'SHIFT_INVALID': 9,
 'SHIFT_OVERFLOW': 3,
 'SHIFT_UNDERFLOW': 6,
 'SU': SU,
 'ScalarFormatter': matplotlib.ticker.ScalarFormatter,
 'ScalarType': (int,
  float,
  complex,
  long,
  bool,
  str,
  unicode,
  buffer,
  numpy.int16,
  numpy.uint16,
  numpy.unicode_,
  numpy.float128,
  numpy.datetime64,
  numpy.int32,
  numpy.uint32,
  numpy.void,
  numpy.complex64,
  numpy.timedelta64,
  numpy.int64,
  numpy.uint64,
  numpy.float16,
  numpy.complex128,
  numpy.int64,
  numpy.uint64,
  numpy.float32,
  numpy.complex256,
  numpy.bool_,
  numpy.int8,
  numpy.uint8,
  numpy.string_,
  numpy.float64,
  numpy.object_),
 'SecondLocator': matplotlib.dates.SecondLocator,
 'Slider': matplotlib.widgets.Slider,
 'Subplot': matplotlib.axes.AxesSubplot,
 'SubplotTool': matplotlib.widgets.SubplotTool,
 'TH': TH,
 'TU': TU,
 'Tester': numpy.testing.nosetester.NoseTester,
 'Text': matplotlib.text.Text,
 'TickHelper': matplotlib.ticker.TickHelper,
 'True_': True,
 'UFUNC_BUFSIZE_DEFAULT': 8192,
 'UFUNC_PYVALS_NAME': 'UFUNC_PYVALS',
 'WE': WE,
 'WEEKLY': 2,
 'WRAP': 1,
 'WeekdayLocator': matplotlib.dates.WeekdayLocator,
 'Widget': matplotlib.widgets.Widget,
 'X': 1,
 'Y': 'c',
 'YEARLY': 0,
 'YearLocator': matplotlib.dates.YearLocator,
 '_': <IPython.core.display.Image at 0x105245910>,
 '_1': <IPython.core.display.Image at 0x105245910>,
 '__': '',
 '___': '',
 '__builtin__': <module '__builtin__' (built-in)>,
 '__builtins__': {'ArithmeticError': ArithmeticError,
  'AssertionError': AssertionError,
  'AttributeError': AttributeError,
  'BaseException': BaseException,
  'BufferError': BufferError,
  'BytesWarning': BytesWarning,
  'DeprecationWarning': DeprecationWarning,
  'EOFError': EOFError,
  'Ellipsis': Ellipsis,
  'EnvironmentError': EnvironmentError,
  'Exception': Exception,
  'False': False,
  'FloatingPointError': FloatingPointError,
  'FutureWarning': FutureWarning,
  'GeneratorExit': GeneratorExit,
  'IOError': IOError,
  'ImportError': ImportError,
  'ImportWarning': ImportWarning,
  'IndentationError': IndentationError,
  'IndexError': IndexError,
  'KeyError': KeyError,
  'KeyboardInterrupt': KeyboardInterrupt,
  'LookupError': LookupError,
  'MemoryError': MemoryError,
  'NameError': NameError,
  'None': None,
  'NotImplemented': NotImplemented,
  'NotImplementedError': NotImplementedError,
  'OSError': OSError,
  'OverflowError': OverflowError,
  'PendingDeprecationWarning': PendingDeprecationWarning,
  'ReferenceError': ReferenceError,
  'RuntimeError': RuntimeError,
  'RuntimeWarning': RuntimeWarning,
  'StandardError': StandardError,
  'StopIteration': StopIteration,
  'SyntaxError': SyntaxError,
  'SyntaxWarning': SyntaxWarning,
  'SystemError': SystemError,
  'SystemExit': SystemExit,
  'TabError': TabError,
  'True': True,
  'TypeError': TypeError,
  'UnboundLocalError': UnboundLocalError,
  'UnicodeDecodeError': UnicodeDecodeError,
  'UnicodeEncodeError': UnicodeEncodeError,
  'UnicodeError': UnicodeError,
  'UnicodeTranslateError': UnicodeTranslateError,
  'UnicodeWarning': UnicodeWarning,
  'UserWarning': UserWarning,
  'ValueError': ValueError,
  'Warning': Warning,
  'ZeroDivisionError': ZeroDivisionError,
  '__IPYTHON__': True,
  '__IPYTHON__active': 'Deprecated, check for __IPYTHON__',
  '__debug__': True,
  '__doc__': "Built-in functions, exceptions, and other objects.\n\nNoteworthy: None is the `nil' object; Ellipsis represents `...' in slices.",
  '__import__': <function __import__>,
  '__name__': '__builtin__',
  '__package__': None,
  'abs': <function abs>,
  'all': <function all>,
  'any': <function any>,
  'apply': <function apply>,
  'basestring': basestring,
  'bin': <function bin>,
  'bool': bool,
  'buffer': buffer,
  'bytearray': bytearray,
  'bytes': str,
  'callable': <function callable>,
  'chr': <function chr>,
  'classmethod': classmethod,
  'cmp': <function cmp>,
  'coerce': <function coerce>,
  'compile': <function compile>,
  'complex': complex,
  'copyright': Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Python Software Foundation.
  All Rights Reserved.
  
  Copyright (c) 2000 BeOpen.com.
  All Rights Reserved.
  
  Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives.
  All Rights Reserved.
  
  Copyright (c) 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam.
  All Rights Reserved.,
  'credits':     Thanks to CWI, CNRI, BeOpen.com, Zope Corporation and a cast of thousands
      for supporting Python development.  See www.python.org for more information.,
  'delattr': <function delattr>,
  'dict': dict,
  'dir': <function dir>,
  'divmod': <function divmod>,
  'dreload': <function IPython.lib.deepreload.reload>,
  'enumerate': enumerate,
  'eval': <function eval>,
  'execfile': <function execfile>,
  'file': file,
  'filter': <function filter>,
  'float': float,
  'format': <function format>,
  'frozenset': frozenset,
  'get_ipython': <bound method ZMQInteractiveShell.get_ipython of <IPython.kernel.zmq.zmqshell.ZMQInteractiveShell object at 0x1019f1f90>>,
  'getattr': <function getattr>,
  'globals': <function globals>,
  'hasattr': <function hasattr>,
  'hash': <function hash>,
  'help': Type help() for interactive help, or help(object) for help about object.,
  'hex': <function hex>,
  'id': <function id>,
  'input': <function IPython.kernel.zmq.ipkernel.<lambda>>,
  'int': int,
  'intern': <function intern>,
  'isinstance': <function isinstance>,
  'issubclass': <function issubclass>,
  'iter': <function iter>,
  'len': <function len>,
  'license': Type license() to see the full license text,
  'list': list,
  'locals': <function locals>,
  'long': long,
  'map': <function map>,
  'max': <function max>,
  'memoryview': memoryview,
  'min': <function min>,
  'next': <function next>,
  'object': object,
  'oct': <function oct>,
  'open': <function open>,
  'ord': <function ord>,
  'pow': <function pow>,
  'print': <function print>,
  'property': property,
  'range': <function range>,
  'raw_input': <function IPython.kernel.zmq.ipkernel.<lambda>>,
  'reduce': <function reduce>,
  'reload': <function reload>,
  'repr': <function repr>,
  'reversed': reversed,
  'round': <function round>,
  'set': set,
  'setattr': <function setattr>,
  'slice': slice,
  'sorted': <function sorted>,
  'staticmethod': staticmethod,
  'str': str,
  'sum': <function sum>,
  'super': super,
  'tuple': tuple,
  'type': type,
  'unichr': <function unichr>,
  'unicode': unicode,
  'vars': <function vars>,
  'xrange': xrange,
  'zip': <function zip>},
 '__doc__': 'Automatically created module for IPython interactive environment',
 '__name__': '__main__',
 '__package__': None,
 '__version__': '1.7.1',
 '_dh': [u'/Users/zchuochen'],
 '_i': u'whos',
 '_i1': u"from IPython.core.display import Image\nImage(url='http://labrosa.ee.columbia.edu/crucialpython/logo.png', width=600)",
 '_i2': u"import numpy as np\nX = 1\nY = 'c'\nZ = X+Y\nA = 3\nB = 4",
 '_i3': u'whos',
 '_i4': u'locals()',
 '_ih': ['',
  u"from IPython.core.display import Image\nImage(url='http://labrosa.ee.columbia.edu/crucialpython/logo.png', width=600)",
  u"import numpy as np\nX = 1\nY = 'c'\nZ = X+Y\nA = 3\nB = 4",
  u"get_ipython().magic(u'whos ')",
  u'locals()'],
 '_ii': u"import numpy as np\nX = 1\nY = 'c'\nZ = X+Y\nA = 3\nB = 4",
 '_iii': u"from IPython.core.display import Image\nImage(url='http://labrosa.ee.columbia.edu/crucialpython/logo.png', width=600)",
 '_oh': {1: <IPython.core.display.Image at 0x105245910>},
 '_sh': <module 'IPython.core.shadowns' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/IPython/core/shadowns.pyc'>,
 'absolute': <ufunc 'absolute'>,
 'acorr': <function matplotlib.pyplot.acorr>,
 'add': <ufunc 'add'>,
 'add_docstring': <function numpy.lib._compiled_base.add_docstring>,
 'add_newdoc': <function numpy.lib.function_base.add_newdoc>,
 'add_newdoc_ufunc': <function numpy.lib._compiled_base.add_newdoc_ufunc>,
 'add_newdocs': <module 'numpy.add_newdocs' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/add_newdocs.pyc'>,
 'alen': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.alen>,
 'all': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.all>,
 'allclose': <function numpy.core.numeric.allclose>,
 'alltrue': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.alltrue>,
 'alterdot': <function numpy.core._dotblas.alterdot>,
 'amap': <function matplotlib.mlab.amap>,
 'amax': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.amax>,
 'amin': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.amin>,
 'angle': <function numpy.lib.function_base.angle>,
 'annotate': <function matplotlib.pyplot.annotate>,
 'any': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.any>,
 'append': <function numpy.lib.function_base.append>,
 'apply_along_axis': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.apply_along_axis>,
 'apply_over_axes': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.apply_over_axes>,
 'arange': <function numpy.core.multiarray.arange>,
 'arccos': <ufunc 'arccos'>,
 'arccosh': <ufunc 'arccosh'>,
 'arcsin': <ufunc 'arcsin'>,
 'arcsinh': <ufunc 'arcsinh'>,
 'arctan': <ufunc 'arctan'>,
 'arctan2': <ufunc 'arctan2'>,
 'arctanh': <ufunc 'arctanh'>,
 'argmax': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.argmax>,
 'argmin': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.argmin>,
 'argsort': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.argsort>,
 'argwhere': <function numpy.core.numeric.argwhere>,
 'around': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.around>,
 'array': <function numpy.core.multiarray.array>,
 'array2string': <function numpy.core.arrayprint.array2string>,
 'array_equal': <function numpy.core.numeric.array_equal>,
 'array_equiv': <function numpy.core.numeric.array_equiv>,
 'array_repr': <function numpy.core.numeric.array_repr>,
 'array_split': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.array_split>,
 'array_str': <function numpy.core.numeric.array_str>,
 'arrow': <function matplotlib.pyplot.arrow>,
 'asanyarray': <function numpy.core.numeric.asanyarray>,
 'asarray': <function numpy.core.numeric.asarray>,
 'asarray_chkfinite': <function numpy.lib.function_base.asarray_chkfinite>,
 'ascontiguousarray': <function numpy.core.numeric.ascontiguousarray>,
 'asfarray': <function numpy.lib.type_check.asfarray>,
 'asfortranarray': <function numpy.core.numeric.asfortranarray>,
 'asmatrix': <function numpy.matrixlib.defmatrix.asmatrix>,
 'asscalar': <function numpy.lib.type_check.asscalar>,
 'atleast_1d': <function numpy.core.shape_base.atleast_1d>,
 'atleast_2d': <function numpy.core.shape_base.atleast_2d>,
 'atleast_3d': <function numpy.core.shape_base.atleast_3d>,
 'autoscale': <function matplotlib.pyplot.autoscale>,
 'autumn': <function matplotlib.pyplot.autumn>,
 'average': <function numpy.lib.function_base.average>,
 'axes': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axes>,
 'axhline': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axhline>,
 'axhspan': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axhspan>,
 'axis': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axis>,
 'axvline': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axvline>,
 'axvspan': <function matplotlib.pyplot.axvspan>,
 'bar': <function matplotlib.pyplot.bar>,
 'barbs': <function matplotlib.pyplot.barbs>,
 'barh': <function matplotlib.pyplot.barh>,
 'bartlett': <function numpy.lib.function_base.bartlett>,
 'base_repr': <function numpy.core.numeric.base_repr>,
 'bench': <bound method NoseTester.test of <numpy.testing.nosetester.NoseTester object at 0x102f90610>>,
 'beta': <function beta>,
 'binary_repr': <function numpy.core.numeric.binary_repr>,
 'bincount': <function numpy.lib._compiled_base.bincount>,
 'binomial': <function binomial>,
 'bitwise_and': <ufunc 'bitwise_and'>,
 'bitwise_not': <ufunc 'invert'>,
 'bitwise_or': <ufunc 'bitwise_or'>,
 'bitwise_xor': <ufunc 'bitwise_xor'>,
 'bivariate_normal': <function matplotlib.mlab.bivariate_normal>,
 'blackman': <function numpy.lib.function_base.blackman>,
 'bmat': <function numpy.matrixlib.defmatrix.bmat>,
 'bone': <function matplotlib.pyplot.bone>,
 'bool8': numpy.bool_,
 'bool_': numpy.bool_,
 'box': <function matplotlib.pyplot.box>,
 'boxplot': <function matplotlib.pyplot.boxplot>,
 'broadcast': numpy.broadcast,
 'broadcast_arrays': <function numpy.lib.stride_tricks.broadcast_arrays>,
 'broken_barh': <function matplotlib.pyplot.broken_barh>,
 'busday_count': <function numpy.core.multiarray.busday_count>,
 'busday_offset': <function numpy.core.multiarray.busday_offset>,
 'busdaycalendar': numpy.busdaycalendar,
 'byte': numpy.int8,
 'byte_bounds': <function numpy.lib.utils.byte_bounds>,
 'bytes': str,
 'bytes_': numpy.string_,
 'c_': <numpy.lib.index_tricks.CClass at 0x102f77550>,
 'can_cast': <function numpy.core.multiarray.can_cast>,
 'cast': {numpy.bool_: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.int8: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.int16: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.int32: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.int64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.int64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.uint8: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.uint16: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.uint32: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.uint64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.uint64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.string_: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.unicode_: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.void: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.float16: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.float32: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.float64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.float128: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.complex64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.complex128: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.complex256: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.object_: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.datetime64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>,
  numpy.timedelta64: <function numpy.core.numerictypes.<lambda>>},
 'cbook': <module 'matplotlib.cbook' from '/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/matplotlib/cbook.pyc'>,
 'cdouble': numpy.complex128,
 'ceil': <ufunc 'ceil'>,
 'center_matrix': <function matplotlib.mlab.center_matrix>,
 'cfloat': numpy.complex128,
 'char': <module 'numpy.core.defchararray' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/core/defchararray.pyc'>,
 'character': numpy.character,
 'chararray': numpy.core.defchararray.chararray,
 'chisquare': <function chisquare>,
 'cholesky': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.cholesky>,
 'choose': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.choose>,
 'cla': <function matplotlib.pyplot.cla>,
 'clabel': <function matplotlib.pyplot.clabel>,
 'clf': <function matplotlib.pyplot.clf>,
 'clim': <function matplotlib.pyplot.clim>,
 'clip': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.clip>,
 'clongdouble': numpy.complex256,
 'clongfloat': numpy.complex256,
 'close': <function matplotlib.pyplot.close>,
 'cm': <module 'matplotlib.cm' from '/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/matplotlib/cm.pyc'>,
 'cohere': <function matplotlib.pyplot.cohere>,
 'colorbar': <function matplotlib.pyplot.colorbar>,
 'colormaps': <function matplotlib.pyplot.colormaps>,
 'colors': <function matplotlib.pyplot.colors>,
 'column_stack': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.column_stack>,
 'common_type': <function numpy.lib.type_check.common_type>,
 'compare_chararrays': <function numpy.core.multiarray.compare_chararrays>,
 'complex128': numpy.complex128,
 'complex256': numpy.complex256,
 'complex64': numpy.complex64,
 'complex_': numpy.complex128,
 'complexfloating': numpy.complexfloating,
 'compress': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.compress>,
 'concatenate': <function numpy.core.multiarray.concatenate>,
 'cond': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.cond>,
 'conj': <ufunc 'conjugate'>,
 'conjugate': <ufunc 'conjugate'>,
 'connect': <function matplotlib.pyplot.connect>,
 'contour': <function matplotlib.pyplot.contour>,
 'contourf': <function matplotlib.pyplot.contourf>,
 'convolve': <function numpy.core.numeric.convolve>,
 'cool': <function matplotlib.pyplot.cool>,
 'copper': <function matplotlib.pyplot.copper>,
 'copy': <function numpy.lib.function_base.copy>,
 'copysign': <ufunc 'copysign'>,
 'copyto': <function numpy.core.multiarray.copyto>,
 'corrcoef': <function numpy.lib.function_base.corrcoef>,
 'correlate': <function numpy.core.numeric.correlate>,
 'cos': <ufunc 'cos'>,
 'cosh': <ufunc 'cosh'>,
 'count_nonzero': <function numpy.core.multiarray.count_nonzero>,
 'cov': <function numpy.lib.function_base.cov>,
 'cross': <function numpy.core.numeric.cross>,
 'csd': <function matplotlib.pyplot.csd>,
 'csingle': numpy.complex64,
 'csv2rec': <function matplotlib.mlab.csv2rec>,
 'ctypeslib': <module 'numpy.ctypeslib' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/ctypeslib.pyc'>,
 'cumprod': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.cumprod>,
 'cumproduct': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.cumproduct>,
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  'e': numpy.float16,
  'f': numpy.float32,
  'f16': numpy.float128,
  'f2': numpy.float16,
  'f4': numpy.float32,
  'f8': numpy.float64,
  'float': numpy.float64,
  'float128': numpy.float128,
  'float16': numpy.float16,
  'float32': numpy.float32,
  'float64': numpy.float64,
  'float_': numpy.float64,
  'g': numpy.float128,
  'h': numpy.int16,
  'half': numpy.float16,
  'i': numpy.int32,
  'i1': numpy.int8,
  'i2': numpy.int16,
  'i4': numpy.int32,
  'i8': numpy.int64,
  'int': numpy.int64,
  'int0': numpy.int64,
  'int16': numpy.int16,
  'int32': numpy.int32,
  'int64': numpy.int64,
  'int8': numpy.int8,
  'int_': numpy.int64,
  'intc': numpy.int32,
  'intp': numpy.int64,
  'l': numpy.int64,
  'longcomplex': numpy.complex256,
  'longdouble': numpy.float128,
  'longfloat': numpy.float128,
  'longlong': numpy.int64,
  'm': numpy.timedelta64,
  'm8': numpy.timedelta64,
  'object': numpy.object_,
  'object0': numpy.object_,
  'object_': numpy.object_,
  'p': numpy.int64,
  'q': numpy.int64,
  'short': numpy.int16,
  'single': numpy.float32,
  'singlecomplex': numpy.complex64,
  'str': numpy.string_,
  'str_': numpy.string_,
  'string': numpy.string_,
  'string0': numpy.string_,
  'string_': numpy.string_,
  'timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
  'u1': numpy.uint8,
  'u2': numpy.uint16,
  'u4': numpy.uint32,
  'u8': numpy.uint64,
  'ubyte': numpy.uint8,
  'uint': numpy.uint64,
  'uint0': numpy.uint64,
  'uint16': numpy.uint16,
  'uint32': numpy.uint32,
  'uint64': numpy.uint64,
  'uint8': numpy.uint8,
  'uintc': numpy.uint32,
  'uintp': numpy.uint64,
  'ulonglong': numpy.uint64,
  'unicode': numpy.unicode_,
  'unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
  'unicode_': numpy.unicode_,
  'ushort': numpy.uint16,
  'void': numpy.void,
  'void0': numpy.void},
 'sctypeNA': {'?': 'Bool',
  'B': 'UInt8',
  'Bool': numpy.bool_,
  'Complex128': numpy.complex256,
  'Complex32': numpy.complex64,
  'Complex64': numpy.complex128,
  'D': 'Complex64',
  'Datetime64': numpy.datetime64,
  'F': 'Complex32',
  'Float128': numpy.float128,
  'Float16': numpy.float16,
  'Float32': numpy.float32,
  'Float64': numpy.float64,
  'G': 'Complex128',
  'H': 'UInt16',
  'I': 'UInt32',
  'Int16': numpy.int16,
  'Int32': numpy.int32,
  'Int64': numpy.int64,
  'Int8': numpy.int8,
  'L': 'UInt64',
  'M': 'Datetime64',
  'M8': 'Datetime64',
  'O': 'Object0',
  'Object0': numpy.object_,
  'Q': 'UInt64',
  'S': 'String0',
  'String0': numpy.string_,
  'Timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
  'U': 'Unicode0',
  'UInt16': numpy.uint16,
  'UInt32': numpy.uint32,
  'UInt64': numpy.uint64,
  'UInt8': numpy.uint8,
  'Unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
  'V': 'Void0',
  'Void0': numpy.void,
  'b': 'Int8',
  'b1': 'Bool',
  'c16': 'Complex64',
  'c32': 'Complex128',
  'c8': 'Complex32',
  'd': 'Float64',
  'e': 'Float16',
  'f': 'Float32',
  'f16': 'Float128',
  'f2': 'Float16',
  'f4': 'Float32',
  'f8': 'Float64',
  'g': 'Float128',
  'h': 'Int16',
  'i': 'Int32',
  'i1': numpy.int8,
  'i2': numpy.int16,
  'i4': numpy.int32,
  'i8': numpy.int64,
  'l': 'Int64',
  'm': 'Timedelta64',
  'm8': 'Timedelta64',
  'q': 'Int64',
  'u1': numpy.uint8,
  'u2': numpy.uint16,
  'u4': numpy.uint32,
  'u8': numpy.uint64,
  numpy.bool_: 'Bool',
  numpy.int8: 'Int8',
  numpy.int16: 'Int16',
  numpy.int32: 'Int32',
  numpy.int64: 'Int64',
  numpy.int64: 'Int64',
  numpy.uint8: 'UInt8',
  numpy.uint16: 'UInt16',
  numpy.uint32: 'UInt32',
  numpy.uint64: 'UInt64',
  numpy.uint64: 'UInt64',
  numpy.string_: 'String0',
  numpy.unicode_: 'Unicode0',
  numpy.void: 'Void0',
  numpy.float16: 'Float16',
  numpy.float32: 'Float32',
  numpy.float64: 'Float64',
  numpy.float128: 'Float128',
  numpy.complex64: 'Complex32',
  numpy.complex128: 'Complex64',
  numpy.complex256: 'Complex128',
  numpy.object_: 'Object0',
  numpy.datetime64: 'Datetime64',
  numpy.timedelta64: 'Timedelta64'},
 'sctypes': {'complex': [numpy.complex64, numpy.complex128, numpy.complex256],
  'float': [numpy.float16, numpy.float32, numpy.float64, numpy.float128],
  'int': [numpy.int8, numpy.int16, numpy.int32, numpy.int64],
  'others': [bool, object, str, unicode, numpy.void],
  'uint': [numpy.uint8, numpy.uint16, numpy.uint32, numpy.uint64]},
 'searchsorted': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.searchsorted>,
 'seed': <function seed>,
 'segments_intersect': <function matplotlib.mlab.segments_intersect>,
 'select': <function numpy.lib.function_base.select>,
 'semilogx': <function matplotlib.pyplot.semilogx>,
 'semilogy': <function matplotlib.pyplot.semilogy>,
 'set_cmap': <function matplotlib.pyplot.set_cmap>,
 'set_numeric_ops': <function numpy.core.multiarray.set_numeric_ops>,
 'set_printoptions': <function numpy.core.arrayprint.set_printoptions>,
 'set_state': <function set_state>,
 'set_string_function': <function numpy.core.numeric.set_string_function>,
 'setbufsize': <function numpy.core.numeric.setbufsize>,
 'setdiff1d': <function numpy.lib.arraysetops.setdiff1d>,
 'seterr': <function numpy.core.numeric.seterr>,
 'seterrcall': <function numpy.core.numeric.seterrcall>,
 'seterrobj': <function numpy.core.umath.seterrobj>,
 'setp': <function matplotlib.pyplot.setp>,
 'setxor1d': <function numpy.lib.arraysetops.setxor1d>,
 'shape': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.shape>,
 'short': numpy.int16,
 'show': <function matplotlib.pyplot.show>,
 'show_config': <function numpy.__config__.show>,
 'shuffle': <function shuffle>,
 'sign': <ufunc 'sign'>,
 'signbit': <ufunc 'signbit'>,
 'signedinteger': numpy.signedinteger,
 'silent_list': matplotlib.cbook.silent_list,
 'sin': <ufunc 'sin'>,
 'sinc': <function numpy.lib.function_base.sinc>,
 'single': numpy.float32,
 'singlecomplex': numpy.complex64,
 'sinh': <ufunc 'sinh'>,
 'size': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.size>,
 'slogdet': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.slogdet>,
 'slopes': <function matplotlib.mlab.slopes>,
 'solve': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.solve>,
 'sometrue': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.sometrue>,
 'sort': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.sort>,
 'sort_complex': <function numpy.lib.function_base.sort_complex>,
 'source': <function numpy.lib.utils.source>,
 'spacing': <ufunc 'spacing'>,
 'specgram': <function matplotlib.pyplot.specgram>,
 'spectral': <function matplotlib.pyplot.spectral>,
 'split': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.split>,
 'spring': <function matplotlib.pyplot.spring>,
 'spy': <function matplotlib.pyplot.spy>,
 'sqrt': <ufunc 'sqrt'>,
 'square': <ufunc 'square'>,
 'squeeze': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.squeeze>,
 'stackplot': <function matplotlib.pyplot.stackplot>,
 'standard_cauchy': <function standard_cauchy>,
 'standard_exponential': <function standard_exponential>,
 'standard_gamma': <function standard_gamma>,
 'standard_normal': <function standard_normal>,
 'standard_t': <function standard_t>,
 'std': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.std>,
 'stem': <function matplotlib.pyplot.stem>,
 'step': <function matplotlib.pyplot.step>,
 'stineman_interp': <function matplotlib.mlab.stineman_interp>,
 'str_': numpy.string_,
 'streamplot': <function matplotlib.pyplot.streamplot>,
 'string0': numpy.string_,
 'string_': numpy.string_,
 'strpdate2num': matplotlib.dates.strpdate2num,
 'subplot': <function matplotlib.pyplot.subplot>,
 'subplot2grid': <function matplotlib.pyplot.subplot2grid>,
 'subplot_tool': <function matplotlib.pyplot.subplot_tool>,
 'subplots': <function matplotlib.pyplot.subplots>,
 'subplots_adjust': <function matplotlib.pyplot.subplots_adjust>,
 'subtract': <ufunc 'subtract'>,
 'sum': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.sum>,
 'summer': <function matplotlib.pyplot.summer>,
 'suptitle': <function matplotlib.pyplot.suptitle>,
 'svd': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.svd>,
 'swapaxes': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.swapaxes>,
 'switch_backend': <function matplotlib.pyplot.switch_backend>,
 'sys': <module 'sys' (built-in)>,
 'table': <function matplotlib.pyplot.table>,
 'take': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.take>,
 'tan': <ufunc 'tan'>,
 'tanh': <ufunc 'tanh'>,
 'tensordot': <function numpy.core.numeric.tensordot>,
 'tensorinv': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.tensorinv>,
 'tensorsolve': <function numpy.linalg.linalg.tensorsolve>,
 'test': <bound method NoseTester.test of <numpy.testing.nosetester.NoseTester object at 0x102f905d0>>,
 'text': <function matplotlib.pyplot.text>,
 'thetagrids': <function matplotlib.pyplot.thetagrids>,
 'tick_params': <function matplotlib.pyplot.tick_params>,
 'ticklabel_format': <function matplotlib.pyplot.ticklabel_format>,
 'tight_layout': <function matplotlib.pyplot.tight_layout>,
 'tile': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.tile>,
 'timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
 'title': <function matplotlib.pyplot.title>,
 'trace': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.trace>,
 'transpose': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.transpose>,
 'trapz': <function numpy.lib.function_base.trapz>,
 'tri': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.tri>,
 'triangular': <function triangular>,
 'tricontour': <function matplotlib.pyplot.tricontour>,
 'tricontourf': <function matplotlib.pyplot.tricontourf>,
 'tril': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.tril>,
 'tril_indices': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.tril_indices>,
 'tril_indices_from': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.tril_indices_from>,
 'trim_zeros': <function numpy.lib.function_base.trim_zeros>,
 'tripcolor': <function matplotlib.pyplot.tripcolor>,
 'triplot': <function matplotlib.pyplot.triplot>,
 'triu': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.triu>,
 'triu_indices': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.triu_indices>,
 'triu_indices_from': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.triu_indices_from>,
 'true_divide': <ufunc 'true_divide'>,
 'trunc': <ufunc 'trunc'>,
 'twinx': <function matplotlib.pyplot.twinx>,
 'twiny': <function matplotlib.pyplot.twiny>,
 'typeDict': {0: numpy.bool_,
  1: numpy.int8,
  2: numpy.uint8,
  3: numpy.int16,
  4: numpy.uint16,
  5: numpy.int32,
  6: numpy.uint32,
  7: numpy.int64,
  8: numpy.uint64,
  9: numpy.int64,
  10: numpy.uint64,
  11: numpy.float32,
  12: numpy.float64,
  13: numpy.float128,
  14: numpy.complex64,
  15: numpy.complex128,
  16: numpy.complex256,
  17: numpy.object_,
  18: numpy.string_,
  19: numpy.unicode_,
  20: numpy.void,
  21: numpy.datetime64,
  22: numpy.timedelta64,
  23: numpy.float16,
  '?': numpy.bool_,
  'B': numpy.uint8,
  'Bool': numpy.bool_,
  'Complex128': numpy.complex256,
  'Complex32': numpy.complex64,
  'Complex64': numpy.complex128,
  'D': numpy.complex128,
  'Datetime64': numpy.datetime64,
  'F': numpy.complex64,
  'Float128': numpy.float128,
  'Float16': numpy.float16,
  'Float32': numpy.float32,
  'Float64': numpy.float64,
  'G': numpy.complex256,
  'H': numpy.uint16,
  'I': numpy.uint32,
  'Int16': numpy.int16,
  'Int32': numpy.int32,
  'Int64': numpy.int64,
  'Int8': numpy.int8,
  'L': numpy.uint64,
  'M': numpy.datetime64,
  'M8': numpy.datetime64,
  'O': numpy.object_,
  'O8': numpy.object_,
  'Object0': numpy.object_,
  'P': numpy.uint64,
  'Q': numpy.uint64,
  'S': numpy.string_,
  'String0': numpy.string_,
  'Timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
  'U': numpy.unicode_,
  'UInt16': numpy.uint16,
  'UInt32': numpy.uint32,
  'UInt64': numpy.uint64,
  'UInt8': numpy.uint8,
  'Unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
  'V': numpy.void,
  'Void0': numpy.void,
  'a': numpy.string_,
  'b': numpy.int8,
  'b1': numpy.bool_,
  'bool': numpy.bool_,
  'bool8': numpy.bool_,
  'bool_': numpy.bool_,
  'byte': numpy.int8,
  'bytes_': numpy.string_,
  'c16': numpy.complex128,
  'c32': numpy.complex256,
  'c8': numpy.complex64,
  'cdouble': numpy.complex128,
  'cfloat': numpy.complex128,
  'clongdouble': numpy.complex256,
  'clongfloat': numpy.complex256,
  'complex': numpy.complex128,
  'complex128': numpy.complex128,
  'complex256': numpy.complex256,
  'complex64': numpy.complex64,
  'complex_': numpy.complex128,
  'csingle': numpy.complex64,
  'd': numpy.float64,
  'datetime64': numpy.datetime64,
  'double': numpy.float64,
  'e': numpy.float16,
  'f': numpy.float32,
  'f16': numpy.float128,
  'f2': numpy.float16,
  'f4': numpy.float32,
  'f8': numpy.float64,
  'float': numpy.float64,
  'float128': numpy.float128,
  'float16': numpy.float16,
  'float32': numpy.float32,
  'float64': numpy.float64,
  'float_': numpy.float64,
  'g': numpy.float128,
  'h': numpy.int16,
  'half': numpy.float16,
  'i': numpy.int32,
  'i1': numpy.int8,
  'i2': numpy.int16,
  'i4': numpy.int32,
  'i8': numpy.int64,
  'int': numpy.int64,
  'int0': numpy.int64,
  'int16': numpy.int16,
  'int32': numpy.int32,
  'int64': numpy.int64,
  'int8': numpy.int8,
  'int_': numpy.int64,
  'intc': numpy.int32,
  'intp': numpy.int64,
  'l': numpy.int64,
  'longcomplex': numpy.complex256,
  'longdouble': numpy.float128,
  'longfloat': numpy.float128,
  'longlong': numpy.int64,
  'm': numpy.timedelta64,
  'm8': numpy.timedelta64,
  'object': numpy.object_,
  'object0': numpy.object_,
  'object_': numpy.object_,
  'p': numpy.int64,
  'q': numpy.int64,
  'short': numpy.int16,
  'single': numpy.float32,
  'singlecomplex': numpy.complex64,
  'str': numpy.string_,
  'str_': numpy.string_,
  'string': numpy.string_,
  'string0': numpy.string_,
  'string_': numpy.string_,
  'timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
  'u1': numpy.uint8,
  'u2': numpy.uint16,
  'u4': numpy.uint32,
  'u8': numpy.uint64,
  'ubyte': numpy.uint8,
  'uint': numpy.uint64,
  'uint0': numpy.uint64,
  'uint16': numpy.uint16,
  'uint32': numpy.uint32,
  'uint64': numpy.uint64,
  'uint8': numpy.uint8,
  'uintc': numpy.uint32,
  'uintp': numpy.uint64,
  'ulonglong': numpy.uint64,
  'unicode': numpy.unicode_,
  'unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
  'unicode_': numpy.unicode_,
  'ushort': numpy.uint16,
  'void': numpy.void,
  'void0': numpy.void},
 'typeNA': {'?': 'Bool',
  'B': 'UInt8',
  'Bool': numpy.bool_,
  'Complex128': numpy.complex256,
  'Complex32': numpy.complex64,
  'Complex64': numpy.complex128,
  'D': 'Complex64',
  'Datetime64': numpy.datetime64,
  'F': 'Complex32',
  'Float128': numpy.float128,
  'Float16': numpy.float16,
  'Float32': numpy.float32,
  'Float64': numpy.float64,
  'G': 'Complex128',
  'H': 'UInt16',
  'I': 'UInt32',
  'Int16': numpy.int16,
  'Int32': numpy.int32,
  'Int64': numpy.int64,
  'Int8': numpy.int8,
  'L': 'UInt64',
  'M': 'Datetime64',
  'M8': 'Datetime64',
  'O': 'Object0',
  'Object0': numpy.object_,
  'Q': 'UInt64',
  'S': 'String0',
  'String0': numpy.string_,
  'Timedelta64': numpy.timedelta64,
  'U': 'Unicode0',
  'UInt16': numpy.uint16,
  'UInt32': numpy.uint32,
  'UInt64': numpy.uint64,
  'UInt8': numpy.uint8,
  'Unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
  'V': 'Void0',
  'Void0': numpy.void,
  'b': 'Int8',
  'b1': 'Bool',
  'c16': 'Complex64',
  'c32': 'Complex128',
  'c8': 'Complex32',
  'd': 'Float64',
  'e': 'Float16',
  'f': 'Float32',
  'f16': 'Float128',
  'f2': 'Float16',
  'f4': 'Float32',
  'f8': 'Float64',
  'g': 'Float128',
  'h': 'Int16',
  'i': 'Int32',
  'i1': numpy.int8,
  'i2': numpy.int16,
  'i4': numpy.int32,
  'i8': numpy.int64,
  'l': 'Int64',
  'm': 'Timedelta64',
  'm8': 'Timedelta64',
  'q': 'Int64',
  'u1': numpy.uint8,
  'u2': numpy.uint16,
  'u4': numpy.uint32,
  'u8': numpy.uint64,
  numpy.bool_: 'Bool',
  numpy.int8: 'Int8',
  numpy.int16: 'Int16',
  numpy.int32: 'Int32',
  numpy.int64: 'Int64',
  numpy.int64: 'Int64',
  numpy.uint8: 'UInt8',
  numpy.uint16: 'UInt16',
  numpy.uint32: 'UInt32',
  numpy.uint64: 'UInt64',
  numpy.uint64: 'UInt64',
  numpy.string_: 'String0',
  numpy.unicode_: 'Unicode0',
  numpy.void: 'Void0',
  numpy.float16: 'Float16',
  numpy.float32: 'Float32',
  numpy.float64: 'Float64',
  numpy.float128: 'Float128',
  numpy.complex64: 'Complex32',
  numpy.complex128: 'Complex64',
  numpy.complex256: 'Complex128',
  numpy.object_: 'Object0',
  numpy.datetime64: 'Datetime64',
  numpy.timedelta64: 'Timedelta64'},
 'typecodes': {'All': '?bhilqpBHILQPefdgFDGSUVOMm',
  'AllFloat': 'efdgFDG',
  'AllInteger': 'bBhHiIlLqQpP',
  'Character': 'c',
  'Complex': 'FDG',
  'Datetime': 'Mm',
  'Float': 'efdg',
  'Integer': 'bhilqp',
  'UnsignedInteger': 'BHILQP'},
 'typename': <function numpy.lib.type_check.typename>,
 'ubyte': numpy.uint8,
 'ufunc': numpy.ufunc,
 'uint': numpy.uint64,
 'uint0': numpy.uint64,
 'uint16': numpy.uint16,
 'uint32': numpy.uint32,
 'uint64': numpy.uint64,
 'uint8': numpy.uint8,
 'uintc': numpy.uint32,
 'uintp': numpy.uint64,
 'ulonglong': numpy.uint64,
 'unicode0': numpy.unicode_,
 'unicode_': numpy.unicode_,
 'uniform': <function uniform>,
 'union1d': <function numpy.lib.arraysetops.union1d>,
 'unique': <function numpy.lib.arraysetops.unique>,
 'unpackbits': <function numpy.lib._compiled_base.unpackbits>,
 'unravel_index': <function numpy.lib._compiled_base.unravel_index>,
 'unsignedinteger': numpy.unsignedinteger,
 'unwrap': <function numpy.lib.function_base.unwrap>,
 'ushort': numpy.uint16,
 'vander': <function numpy.lib.twodim_base.vander>,
 'var': <function numpy.core.fromnumeric.var>,
 'vdot': <function numpy.core._dotblas.vdot>,
 'vector_lengths': <function matplotlib.mlab.vector_lengths>,
 'vectorize': numpy.lib.function_base.vectorize,
 'vlines': <function matplotlib.pyplot.vlines>,
 'void': numpy.void,
 'void0': numpy.void,
 'vonmises': <function vonmises>,
 'vsplit': <function numpy.lib.shape_base.vsplit>,
 'vstack': <function numpy.core.shape_base.vstack>,
 'waitforbuttonpress': <function matplotlib.pyplot.waitforbuttonpress>,
 'wald': <function wald>,
 'warnings': <module 'warnings' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/warnings.pyc'>,
 'weibull': <function weibull>,
 'where': <function numpy.core.multiarray.where>,
 'who': <function numpy.lib.utils.who>,
 'window_hanning': <function matplotlib.mlab.window_hanning>,
 'window_none': <function matplotlib.mlab.window_none>,
 'winter': <function matplotlib.pyplot.winter>,
 'xcorr': <function matplotlib.pyplot.xcorr>,
 'xlabel': <function matplotlib.pyplot.xlabel>,
 'xlim': <function matplotlib.pyplot.xlim>,
 'xscale': <function matplotlib.pyplot.xscale>,
 'xticks': <function matplotlib.pyplot.xticks>,
 'ylabel': <function matplotlib.pyplot.ylabel>,
 'ylim': <function matplotlib.pyplot.ylim>,
 'yscale': <function matplotlib.pyplot.yscale>,
 'yticks': <function matplotlib.pyplot.yticks>,
 'zeros': <function numpy.core.multiarray.zeros>,
 'zeros_like': <function numpy.core.numeric.zeros_like>,
 'zipf': <function zipf>}
In [5]:
%connect_info
{
  "stdin_port": 51727, 
  "ip": "127.0.0.1", 
  "control_port": 51728, 
  "hb_port": 51729, 
  "signature_scheme": "hmac-sha256", 
  "key": "1ec472e3-072c-4d6f-b90d-47d1c76bbc71", 
  "shell_port": 51725, 
  "transport": "tcp", 
  "iopub_port": 51726
}

Paste the above JSON into a file, and connect with:
    $> ipython <app> --existing <file>
or, if you are local, you can connect with just:
    $> ipython <app> --existing kernel-f6c5e47c-71d6-4644-b934-712daa9188fd.json 
or even just:
    $> ipython <app> --existing 
if this is the most recent IPython session you have started.
In [6]:
%qtconsole
In [8]:
%debug
> <ipython-input-2-d6727626de54>(4)<module>()
      3 Y = 'c'
----> 4 Z = X+Y
      5 A = 3

ipdb> q

Break points?

Pdb/Ipdb is the python debug module, it provides the standatd debug function, including the break points, step in etc. After version 1.0 ipython notebook support the pdb. So we can directly debug in ipython notebook.

Pdb commands

  • pdb.set_trace(): set break point
  • h : help
  • n : next
  • l : list
  • s : step in
  • r : return
  • c : continue
  • q : quit
  • p : print value

  • %run -d theprogram.py : run debuger inside ipython

Set break points

In [9]:
def square_sum(a,b):
    c=a*a
    d=b*b
    return c+d
In [13]:
import ipdb as pdb
X = 1
pdb.set_trace()
Y = 1
Z= square_sum(X,Y)
for i in xrange(20):
    X=X+ square_sum(X,Y)/(X*X)
    print X
    pdb.set_trace()
ipdb> 5/2
ipdb> q
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
BdbQuit                                   Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-13-e0d690091ab6> in <module>()
      2 import numpy
      3 X = 1
----> 4 pdb.set_trace()
      5 Y = 1
      6 Z= square_sum(X,Y)

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/bdb.pyc in trace_dispatch(self, frame, event, arg)
     50             return self.dispatch_call(frame, arg)
     51         if event == 'return':
---> 52             return self.dispatch_return(frame, arg)
     53         if event == 'exception':
     54             return self.dispatch_exception(frame, arg)

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/bdb.pyc in dispatch_return(self, frame, arg)
     84         if self.stop_here(frame) or frame == self.returnframe:
     85             self.user_return(frame, arg)
---> 86             if self.quitting: raise BdbQuit
     87         return self.trace_dispatch
     88 

BdbQuit: 
In [6]:
%run -d sample_debug.py : run debuger inside ipython
ipdb> l
ipdb> l
ipdb> l
ipdb> n
ipdb> n
ipdb> n
ipdb> n
ipdb> c
ipdb> c
ipdb> c
ipdb> c
ipdb> c
ipdb> q
In [14]:
%pdb
In [15]:
X = 1
Y = 'c'
Z = X+Y
A = 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-15-fd53586ced84> in <module>()
      1 X = 1
      2 Y = 'c'
----> 3 Z = X+Y
      4 A = 1

TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'str'
ipdb> q