Working with Gaussians


Sums and Transformations of Gaussian Variables

  • The Gaussian distribution $$ \mathcal{N}(x|\mu,\Sigma) = |2 \pi \Sigma |^{-\frac{1}{2}} \,\mathrm{exp}\left\{-\frac{1}{2}(x-\mu)^T \Sigma^{-1} (x-\mu) \right\} $$ for variable $x$ is completely specified by its mean $\mu$ and variance $\Sigma$.
    • $\Lambda = \Sigma^{-1}$ is called the precision matrix.
  • A linear transformation $z=Ax+b$ of a Gaussian variable $\mathcal{N}(x|\mu,\Sigma)$ is Gaussian distributed as

$$ p(z) = \mathcal{N} \left(z \,|\, A\mu+b, A\Sigma A^T \right) \tag{SRG-4a} $$

  • The sum of two independent Gaussian variables is also Gaussian distributed. Specifically, if $x \sim \mathcal{N} \left(x|\mu_x, \Sigma_x \right)$ and $y \sim \mathcal{N} \left(y|\mu_y, \Sigma_y \right)$, then the PDF for $z=x+y$ is given by $$\begin{align} p(z) &= \mathcal{N}(x\,|\,\mu_x,\Sigma_x) \ast \mathcal{N}(y\,|\,\mu_y,\Sigma_y) \notag\\ &= \mathcal{N} \left(z\,|\,\mu_x+\mu_y, \Sigma_x +\Sigma_y \right) \tag{SRG-8} \end{align}$$
    • [Exercise]: Show that Eq.SRG-8 is really a special case of Eq.SRG-4a.
    • The sum of two Gaussian distributions is NOT a Gaussian distribution. Why not?

Example: Gaussian Signals in a Linear System

  • [Q.]: Given independent variables $x \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_x,\sigma_y)$ and $y \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_y,\sigma_y)$, what is the PDF for $z = A\cdot(x -y) + b$ ?
  • [A.]: $z$ is also Gaussian with $$ p_z(z) = \mathcal{N}(z|A(\mu_x-\mu_y)+b, \, A(\sigma_x \mathbf{+} \sigma_y)A^T) $$
  • Think about the role of the Gaussian distribution for stochastic linear systems in relation to what sinusoidals mean for deterministic linear system analysis.

Example: Bayesian Estimation of a Constant

  • [Question] Estimate a constant $\theta$ from one 'noisy' measurement $x$ about that constant. Assume the following model specification (the tilde $\sim$ means: 'is distributed as'):

$$\begin{align*} x &= \theta + \epsilon \\ \theta &\sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_\theta,\sigma_\theta^2) \\ \epsilon &\sim \mathcal{N}(0,\sigma^2_{\epsilon}) \end{align*}$$


  • 1. Model specification Note that you can rewrite these specifications in probabilistic notation as follows: $$\begin{align} p(x|\theta) &=\mathcal{N}(x|\theta,\sigma^2_{\epsilon}) \tag{likelihood}\\ p(\theta) &=\mathcal{N}(\theta|\mu_\theta,\sigma_\theta^2) \tag{prior} \end{align}$$
  • 2. Inference for the posterior PDF $p(\theta|x)$ $$\begin{align*} p(\theta|x) &= \frac{p(x|\theta)p(\theta)}{p(x)} = \frac{p(x|\theta)p(\theta)} { \int p(x|\theta)p(\theta) \, \mathrm{d}\theta } \notag \\ &= \frac{1}{C} \,\mathcal{N}(x|\theta,\sigma^2_{\epsilon})\, \mathcal{N}(\theta|\mu_\theta,\sigma_\theta^2) \notag \\ &= \frac{1}{C_1} \mathrm{exp} \left\{ -\frac{(x-\theta)^2}{2\sigma^2_{\epsilon}} - \frac{(\theta-\mu_\theta)^2}{2\sigma_\theta^2} \right\} \notag \\ &= \frac{1}{C_1} \mathrm{exp} \left\{ \theta^2\left( -\frac{1}{2\sigma^2_{\epsilon}} - \frac{1}{2\sigma_\theta^2} \right) + \theta \left( \frac{x}{\sigma^2_{\epsilon}} + \frac{\mu_\theta}{\sigma_\theta^2} \right) + C_2 \right\} \notag \\ &= \frac{1}{C_1} \mathrm{exp} \left\{ -\frac{\sigma_\theta^2 + \sigma^2_{\epsilon}}{2\sigma_\theta^2 \sigma^2_{\epsilon}} \left( \theta - \frac{x\sigma_\theta^2 + \mu_s\sigma^2_{\epsilon}}{\sigma_\theta^2 + \sigma^2_{\epsilon}} \right)^2 + C_3 \right\} \end{align*}$$ which we recognize as a Gaussian distribution.
  • This computational 'trick' for multiplying two Gaussians is called completing the square. The procedure makes use of the equality $$ax^2+bx+c_1 = a\left(x+\frac{b}{2a}\right)^2+c_2$$
  • Hence, it follows that the posterior for $\theta$ is

$$\begin{equation*} p(\theta|x) = \mathcal{N} (\theta |\, \mu_{\theta|x}, \sigma_{\theta|x}^2) \end{equation*}$$


$$\begin{align*} \frac{1}{\sigma_{\theta|x}^2} &= \frac{\sigma^2_{\epsilon} + \sigma_\theta^2}{\sigma^2_{\epsilon}\sigma_\theta^2} = \frac{1}{\sigma_\theta^2} + \frac{1}{\sigma^2_{\epsilon}}\\ \mu_{\theta|x} &= \sigma_{\theta|x}^2 \, \left( \frac{1}{\sigma^2_{\epsilon}}x + \frac{1}{\sigma_\theta^2} \mu_\theta \right) \end{align*}$$

  • So, multiplication of two Gaussian distributions yields another (unnormalized) Gaussian with
    • posterior precision equals sum of prior precsions
    • posterior precision-weighted mean equals sum of prior precision-weighted means


Let's plot the exact product of two Gaussian PDFs as well as the normalized product according to the above derivation.

In [1]:
using PyPlot, Distributions
d1 = Normal(0, 1) # μ=0, σ^2=1
d2 = Normal(3, 2) # μ=3, σ^2=4

# Calculate the parameters of the product d1*d2
s2_prod = (d1.σ^-2 + d2.σ^-2)^-1
m_prod = s2_prod * ((d1.σ^-2)*d1.μ + (d2.σ^-2)*d2.μ)
d_prod = Normal(m_prod, sqrt(s2_prod)) # Note that we neglect the normalization constant.

# Plot stuff
x = linspace(-4, 8, 100)
plot(x, pdf.(d1,x), "k")
plot(x, pdf.(d2,x), "b")
plot(x, pdf.(d1,x) .* pdf.(d2,x), "r-") # Plot the exact product
plot(x, pdf.(d_prod,x), "r:")          # Plot the normalized Gaussian product
        L"\mathcal{N}(0,1) \mathcal{N}(3,4)", 
        L"Z^{-1} \mathcal{N}(0,1) \mathcal{N}(3,4)"]);

The solid and dotted red curves are identical up to a scaling factor $Z$.

Multivariate Gaussian Multiplication

  • In general, the multiplication of two multi-variate Gaussians yields an (unnormalized) Gaussian, see [SRG-6]: $$\begin{equation*} \mathcal{N}(x|\mu_a,\Sigma_a) \cdot \mathcal{N}(x|\mu_b,\Sigma_b) = \alpha \cdot \mathcal{N}(x|\mu_c,\Sigma_c) \end{equation*}$$ where $$\begin{align*} \Sigma_c^{-1} &= \Sigma_a^{-1} + \Sigma_b^{-1} \\ \Sigma_c^{-1} \mu_c &= \Sigma_a^{-1}\mu_a + \Sigma_b^{-1}\mu_b \end{align*}$$ and normalization constant $\alpha = \mathcal{N}(\mu_a|\, \mu_b, \Sigma_a + \Sigma_b)$.
  • If we define the precision as $\Lambda \equiv \Sigma^{-1}$, then we see that precisions add and precision-weighted means add too.
  • As we just saw, great application to Bayesian inference!

$$\begin{equation*} \underbrace{\text{Gaussian}}_{\text{posterior}} \propto \underbrace{\text{Gaussian}}_{\text{likelihood}} \times \underbrace{\text{Gaussian}}_{\text{prior}} \end{equation*}$$

Conditioning and Marginalization of a Gaussian

  • Let $z = \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}$ be jointly normal distributed as

$$\begin{align*} p(z) &= \mathcal{N}(z | \mu, \Sigma) =\mathcal{N} \left( \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix} \left| \begin{bmatrix} \mu_x \\ \mu_y \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} \Sigma_x & \Sigma_{xy} \\ \Sigma_{yx} & \Sigma_y \end{bmatrix} \right. \right) \end{align*}$$

  • Since covariance matrices are by definition symmetric, it follows that $\Sigma_x$ and $\Sigma_y$ are symmetric and $\Sigma_{xy} = \Sigma_{yx}^T$.
  • Let's factorize $p(x,y)$ into $p(y|x)\, p(x)$ through conditioning and marginalization (proof in Bishop pp.87-89)
  • Conditioning

$$\begin{align*} p(y|x) &= p(x,y)/p(x) \\ &= \mathcal{N}\left(y|\mu_y + \Sigma_{yx}\Sigma_x^{-1}(x-\mu_x),\, \Sigma_y - \Sigma_{yx}\Sigma_x^{-1}\Sigma_{xy} \right) \end{align*}$$

  • Marginalization

$$ p(x) = \int p(x,y)\,\mathrm{d}y = \mathcal{N}\left( x|\mu_x, \Sigma_x \right) $$

  • Useful for applications to Bayesian inference in jointly Gaussian systems.


Interactive plot of the joint, marginal, and conditional distributions.

In [2]:
using Reactive, Interact, PyPlot, Distributions
# z = [x; y]
μ = [1.; 2.]
Σ = [0.3 0.7;
     0.7 2.0]
joint = MvNormal(μ,Σ)
marginal_x = Normal(μ[1], sqrt(Σ[1,1]))

# Plot p(x,y)
joint_pdf = Matrix(100,100)
x_range = linspace(-2,5,100); y_range = linspace(-2,5,100)
for i=1:length(x_range)
    for j=1:length(y_range)
        joint_pdf[i,j] = pdf(joint, [x_range[i];y_range[j]])

imshow(joint_pdf', origin="lower", extent=[x_range[1], x_range[end], y_range[1], y_range[end]])
grid(); xlabel("x"); ylabel("y"); title("p(x,y)"); tight_layout()

# Plot p(x)
plot(linspace(-2,5,100), pdf.(marginal_x, linspace(-2,5,100)))
grid(); xlabel("x"); ylabel("p(x)"); title("Marginal distribution p(x)"); tight_layout()

f = figure()
@manipulate for x=-2:0.1:3; withfig(f) do
        conditional_y_m = μ[2]+Σ[2,1]*inv(Σ[1,1])*(x-μ[1])
        conditional_y_s2 = Σ[2,2] - Σ[2,1]*inv(Σ[1,1])*Σ[1,2]
        conditional_y = Normal(conditional_y_m, sqrt.(conditional_y_s2))

        # Plot p(y|x)
        plot(linspace(-2,5,100), pdf.(conditional_y, linspace(-2,5,100)))
        grid(); xlabel("y"); ylabel("p(y|x)"); title("Conditional distribution p(y|x)"); tight_layout()

As is clear from the plots, the conditional distribution is a renormalized slice from the joint distribution.

Example: Conditioning of Gaussian

  • Consider (again) the system

$$\begin{align*} x &= \theta + \epsilon \\ \theta &\sim \mathcal{N}(\theta|\mu_\theta,\sigma_\theta^2) \\ \epsilon &\sim \mathcal{N}(\epsilon|0,\sigma^2_{\epsilon}) \end{align*}$$

  • This system is equivalent to (derive this!)

$$ p(x,\theta|\,\mu,\sigma) = \mathcal{N} \left( \begin{bmatrix} x\\ \theta \end{bmatrix} \left| \begin{bmatrix} \mu_\theta\\ \mu_\theta\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} \sigma_\theta^2+\sigma_{\epsilon}^2 & \sigma_\theta^2\\ \sigma_\theta^2 &\sigma_\theta^2 \end{bmatrix} \right. \right) $$

  • Direct substitution of the rule for Gaussian conditioning leads to (derive this yourself!) $$\begin{align*} p(\theta|x) &= \mathcal{N} \left( \theta\,|\,\mu_{\theta|x}, \sigma_{\theta|x}^2 \right)\,, \quad \text{with} \\ K &= \frac{\sigma_\theta^2}{\sigma_\theta^2+\sigma_{\epsilon}^2} \qquad \text{($K$ is called: Kalman gain)}\\ \mu_{\theta|x} &= \mu_\theta + K \cdot (x-\mu_\theta)\\ \sigma_{\theta|x}^2 &= \left( 1-K \right) \sigma_\theta^2 \end{align*}$$

$\longrightarrow$ Moral: For jointly Gaussian systems, we can do inference simply in one step by using the formulas for conditioning and marginalization.

Application: Recursive Bayesian Estimation

Now consider the signal $x_t=\theta+\epsilon_t$, where $D_t= \left\{x_1,\ldots,x_t\right\}$ is observed sequentially (over time).


  • Derive a recursive algorithm for $p(\theta|D_t)$, i.e., an update rule for (posterior) $p(\theta|D_t)$ based on (prior) $p(\theta|D_{t-1})$ and (new observation) $x_t$.


  • Let's define the estimate after $t$ observations (i.e., our solution) as $p(\theta|D_t) = \mathcal{N}(\theta\,|\,\mu_t,\sigma_t^2)$.
  • Model specification. We define the joint distribution for $\theta$ and $x_t$, given background $D_{t-1}$, by $$\begin{align*} p(x_t,\theta \,|\, D_{t-1}) &= p(x_t|\theta) \, p(\theta|D_{t-1}) \\ &= \underbrace{\mathcal{N}(x_t\,|\, \theta,\sigma^2_{\epsilon})}_{\text{likelihood}} \, \underbrace{\mathcal{N}(\theta\,|\,\mu_{t-1},\sigma_{t-1}^2)}_{\text{prior}} \end{align*}$$
  • Inference. Use Bayes rule, $$\begin{align*} p(\theta|D_t) &\propto p(x_t|\theta) \, p(\theta|D_{t-1}) \\ &= \mathcal{N}(x_t|\theta,\sigma^2_{\epsilon}) \, \mathcal{N}(\theta\,|\,\mu_{t-1},\sigma_{t-1}^2) \\ &= \mathcal{N}(\theta|x_t,\sigma^2_{\epsilon}) \, \mathcal{N}(\theta\,|\,\mu_{t-1},\sigma_{t-1}^2) \\ &= \mathcal{N}(\theta|\mu_t,\sigma_t^2) \end{align*}$$ with $$\begin{align*} K_t &= \frac{\sigma_{t-1}^2}{\sigma_{t-1}^2+\sigma_{\epsilon}^2} \qquad \text{(Kalman gain)}\\ \mu_t &= \mu_{t-1} + K_t \cdot (x_t-\mu_{t-1})\\ \sigma_t^2 &= \left( 1-K_t \right) \sigma_{t-1}^2 \end{align*}$$ (as before, we used the formulas for conditioning in a multivariate Gaussian system).
  • This linear sequential estimator of mean and variance in Gaussian observations is called a Kalman Filter.
  • Note that the uncertainty about $\theta$ decreases over time (since $0<(1-K_t)<1$). This makes sense: since we assume that the statistics of the system do not change (stationarity), each new sample provides new information.
  • Recursive Bayesian estimation is the basis for adaptive signal processing algorithms such as Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS).


Let's implement the Kalman filter described above. We'll use it to recursively estimate the value of $\theta$ based on noisy observations. Use the 'Step' button to see the recursive updates to the posterior $p(\theta|D)$.

In [3]:
using PyPlot, Reactive, Interact

interactive_plot = false # Set to true to generate an interactive plot with 'step' button
N = 50                   # Number of observations
θ = 2.0                  # True value of the variable we want to estimate
σ_ϵ2 = 0.25              # Observation noise variance
x = sqrt(σ_ϵ2) * randn(N) + θ # Generate N noisy observations of θ

f = figure()
global t = 0
global μ = fill!(Vector{Float64}(N), NaN)    # Means of p(θ|D) over time
global σ_μ2 = fill!(Vector{Float64}(N), NaN) # Variances of p(θ|D) over time

function performKalmanStep()
    # Perform a Kalman filter step, update t, μ, σ_μ2
    global t += 1
    if t>1 # Use posterior from prev. step as prior
        K = σ_μ2[t-1] / (σ_ϵ2 + σ_μ2[t-1]) # Kalman gain
        μ[t] = μ[t-1] + K*(x[t] - μ[t-1])  # Update mean using (1)
        σ_μ2[t] = σ_μ2[t-1] * (1.0-K)      # Update variance using (2)
    elseif t==1 # Use prior
        # Prior p(θ) = N(0,1000)
        K = 1000.0 / (σ_ϵ2 + 1000.0) # Kalman gain
        μ[t] = 0 + K*(x[t] - 0)      # Update mean using (1)
        σ_μ2[t] = 1000 * (1.0-K)     # Update variance using (2)

function plotStatus()
    # Plot the 'true' value of θ, noisy observations x, and the recursively updated posterior p(θ|D)
    t = collect(1:N)
    plot(t, θ*ones(N), "k--")
    plot(t, x, "rx")
    plot(t, μ, "b-")
    fill_between(t, μ-sqrt.(σ_μ2), μ+sqrt.(σ_μ2), color="b", alpha=0.3)
    legend([L"\theta", L"x[t]", L"\mu[t]"])
    xlim((1, N)); xlabel(L"t"); grid()

if interactive_plot
    @manipulate for 
        perform_step = button("Step");
        withfig(f) do
            if t<=N
    while t<N

The shaded area represents 2 standard deviations of posterior $p(\theta|D)$. The variance of the posterior is guaranteed to decrease monotonically for the standard Kalman filter.

Product of Normally Distributed Variables

  • (We've seen that) the sum of two Gausssian distributed variables is also Gaussian distributed.
  • Has the product of two Gaussian distributed variables also a Gaussian distribution?
  • No! In general this is a difficult computation. As an example, let's compute $p(z)$ for $Z=XY$ for the special case that $X\sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$ and $Y\sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$. $$\begin{align*} p(z) &= \int_{X,Y} p(z|x,y)\,p(x,y)\,\mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y \\ &= \frac{1}{2 \pi}\int \delta(z-xy) \, e^{-(x^2+y^2)/2} \, \mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y \\ &= \frac{1}{\pi} \int_0^\infty \frac{1}{x} e^{-(x^2+z^2/x^2)/2} \, \mathrm{d}x \\ &= \frac{1}{\pi} \mathrm{K}_0( \lvert z\rvert )\,. \end{align*}$$ where $\mathrm{K}_n(z)$ is a modified Bessel function of the second kind.


We plot $p(Z)$ to give an idea of what this distribution looks like.

In [4]:
using PyPlot, Distributions, SpecialFunctions
X = Normal(0,1)
pdf_product_std_normals(z::Vector) = (besselk.(0, abs.(z))./π)
range = collect(linspace(-4,4,100))
plot(range, pdf.(X, range))
plot(range, pdf_product_std_normals(range))
legend([L"p(X)=p(Y)=\mathcal{N}(0,1)", L"p(Z)"]);

Review Gaussians

The success of Gaussian distributions in probabilistic modeling is large due to the following properties:

  • A linear transformation of a Gaussian distributed variable is also Gaussian distributed
  • The convolution of two Gaussian functions is another Gaussian function (use in sum of 2 variables)
  • The product of two Gaussian functions is another Gaussian function (use in Bayes rule).
  • Conditioning and marginalization of multivariate Gaussian distributions produce Gaussians again (use in working with observations and when doing Bayesian predictions)
  • The Gaussian PDF has higher entropy than any other with the same variance. (Not discussed in this course).

  • Any smooth function with single rounded maximum, if raised to higher and higher powers, goes into a Gaussian function. (Not discussed).

Some Useful Matrix Calculus

Aside from working with Gaussians, it will be helpful for the next lessons to be familiar with some matrix calculus. We shortly recapitulate used formulas here.

  • We define the gradient of a scalar function $f(A)$ w.r.t. an $n \times k$ matrix $A$ as $$ \nabla_A f \triangleq \begin{bmatrix} \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{11}} & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{12}} & \cdots & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{1k}}\\ \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{21}} & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{22}} & \cdots & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{2k}}\\ \vdots & \vdots & \cdots & \vdots\\ \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{n1}} & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{n2}} & \cdots & \frac{\partial{f}}{\partial a_{nk}} \end{bmatrix} $$
  • The following formulas are useful (see Bishop App.-C) $$\begin{align*} |A^{-1}|&=|A|^{-1} \tag{B-C.4} \\ \nabla_A \log |A| &= (A^{T})^{-1} = (A^{-1})^T \tag{B-C.28} \\ \mathrm{Tr}[ABC]&= \mathrm{Tr}[CAB] = \mathrm{Tr}[BCA] \tag{B-C.9} \\ \nabla_A \mathrm{Tr}[AB] &=\nabla_A \mathrm{Tr}[BA]= B^T \tag{B-C.25} \\ \nabla_A \mathrm{Tr}[ABA^T] &= A(B+B^T) \tag{B-C.27}\\ \nabla_x x^TAx &= (A+A^T)x \tag{from B-C.27}\\ \nabla_X a^TXb &= \nabla_X \mathrm{Tr}[ba^TX] = ab^T \notag \end{align*}$$

What's Next?

  • We discussed how Bayesian probability theory provides an integrated framework for making predictions based on observed data.
  • The process involves model specification (your main task!), inference and actual model-based prediction.
  • The latter two tasks are only difficult because of computational issues.
  • Maximum likelihood was introduced as a computationally simpler approximation to the Bayesian approach.
  • In particular under some linear Gaussian assumptions, a few interesting models can be designed.
  • The rest of this course (part-1) concerns introduction to these Linear Gaussian models.

The slide below loads the style file

In [5]:
open("../../styles/aipstyle.html") do f
    display("text/html", readstring(f))